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Archetypes of Strategy Formulation

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  • Danny Miller

    (McGill University)

  • Peter H. Friesen

    (McGill University)

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    Abstract

    There have been few attempts to understand the strategy making process by examining the organizational and environmental context in which it occurs. Rather than adopting the stance of contingency theorists who focus mainly on bivariate relationships, we decided to look for simultaneous associations among a fairly large number of variables. It was hoped that these variables would configure into models or archetypes which describe a series of different, though very frequently occurring modes or organizational failure and success. The methodology used to isolate archetypes is explained. Ten archetypes are described. Successful archetypes are: the adaptive firm under moderate challenge, the adaptive firm in a very challenging environment, the dominant firm, the giant under fire, the entrepreneurial conglomerate, and the innovator. Failure archetypes include: the impulsive firm, the stagnant bureaucracy, the headless giant, and the aftermath.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.24.9.921
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by INFORMS in its journal Management Science.

    Volume (Year): 24 (1978)
    Issue (Month): 9 (May)
    Pages: 921-933

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    Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:24:y:1978:i:9:p:921-933

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    Cited by:
    1. Knight, Gary A., 1997. "Cross-cultural reliability and validity of a scale to measure firm entrepreneurial orientation," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 213-225, May.
    2. Walter, Achim & Auer, Michael & Ritter, Thomas, 2006. "The impact of network capabilities and entrepreneurial orientation on university spin-off performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 541-567, July.
    3. Dimitratos, Pavlos & Amorós, José Ernesto & Etchebarne, María Soledad & Felzensztein, Christian, 2014. "Micro-multinational or not? International entrepreneurship, networking and learning effects," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 67(5), pages 908-915.
    4. João Ferreira, 2005. "Corporate Entrepreneurship: A Strategic And Structural Perspective," Industrial Organization 0506008, EconWPA.
    5. Dimitratos, Pavlos & Plakoyiannaki, Emmanuella & Pitsoulaki, Antigoni & Tüselmann, Heinz Josef, 2010. "The global smaller firm in international entrepreneurship," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 589-606, December.
    6. Pérez-Luño, Ana & Wiklund, Johan & Cabrera, Ramón Valle, 2011. "The dual nature of innovative activity: How entrepreneurial orientation influences innovation generation and adoption," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 555-571, September.
    7. Salmerón Gómez, Román & Gómez Haro, Samuel, 2012. "Relación entre los factores institucionales y el emprendimiento: análisis mediante técnicas cuantitativas || Relationship between Institutional Factors and Entrepreneurship: A Quantitative Analysis," Revista de Métodos Cuantitativos para la Economía y la Empresa = Journal of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business Administration, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business Administration, vol. 13(1), pages 54-72, June.
    8. Lumpkin, G. T. & Dess, Gregory G., 2001. "Linking two dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation to firm performance: The moderating role of environment and industry life cycle," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 429-451, September.
    9. Casillas, José C. & Moreno, Ana M. & Barbero, José L., 2011. "Entrepreneurial orientation of family firms: Family and environmental dimensions," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 90-100, June.
    10. Memili, Esra & Eddleston, Kimberly A. & Kellermanns, Franz W. & Zellweger, Thomas M. & Barnett, Tim, 2010. "The critical path to family firm success through entrepreneurial risk taking and image," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 200-209, December.
    11. Indujeeva Peiris & Michèle Akoorie & Paresha Sinha, 2012. "International entrepreneurship: A critical analysis of studies in the past two decades and future directions for research," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 279-324, December.
    12. Engelen, Andreas, 2010. "Entrepreneurial orientation as a function of national cultural variations in two countries," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 354-368, December.
    13. Rosenbusch, Nina & Brinckmann, Jan & Bausch, Andreas, 2011. "Is innovation always beneficial? A meta-analysis of the relationship between innovation and performance in SMEs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 441-457, July.
    14. Taggart, J. H., 1999. "MNC subsidiary performance, risk, and corporate expectations," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 233-255, April.
    15. Savash Orhan Iozioldash, 2009. "Essence, Effects, Problems and Perspectives of the Process of Economic Integration of Turkey to the European Union," Economic Studies journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 4, pages 113-137.
    16. Thomas Zellweger & Philipp Sieger, 2012. "Entrepreneurial orientation in long-lived family firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 38(1), pages 67-84, January.
    17. Adel Elgharbawy & Magdy Abdel-Kader, 2013. "Enterprise governance and value-based management: a theoretical contingency framework," Journal of Management and Governance, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 99-129, February.
    18. Anastassia Stancheva, 2009. "The Enterprise from Management Point of View: Meta-Analysis (Internal Structure and Behavior)," Economic Studies journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 4, pages 67-112.
    19. Antoncic, Bostjan & Hisrich, Robert D., 2001. "Intrapreneurship: Construct refinement and cross-cultural validation," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 16(5), pages 495-527, September.

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