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Are Japanese Nominal Wages Downwardly Rigid? (Part II): Examinations Using a Friction Model

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  • Kuroda, Sachiko

    (Institute for Monetary and Econ Studies, Bank of Japan)

  • Yamamoto, Isamu

    (Institute for Monetary and Econ Studies, Bank of Japan)

Abstract

This paper confirms the existence of downward nominal wage rigidity in Japan as presented in Kuroda and Yamamoto (2003) and quantifies the extent of this downward nominal wage rigidity by applying econometric methods to Japanese longitudinal data. Using 1993-98 data, we find that downward nominal wage rigidity does exist in Japan even after controlling the individual characteristics and the measurement errors in reported nominal wages. In addition, we find that the extent of the downward nominal wage rigidity is sensitive to the choice of wage measures. While the hourly wages of part-time female employees exhibit almost complete downward rigidity, the extents of the downward rigidity are limited for the regular monthly salaries and annual earnings of full- time employees. For example, our estimates show that the regular monthly salaries of full-time male and female employees will not be cut as long as the notional wages do not decline by more than about 7.7 percent and 4.0 percent, respectively. However, when the notional wage change rates exceed these threshold values, nominal wage cuts do occur.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan in its journal Monetary and Economic Studies.

Volume (Year): 21 (2003)
Issue (Month): 2 (August)
Pages: 31-68

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Handle: RePEc:ime:imemes:v:21:y:2003:i:2:p:31-68

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References

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  1. Ernst Fehr & Lorenz Goette, 2004. "Robustness And Real Consequences Of Nominal Wage Rigidity," Macroeconomics 0409025, EconWPA.
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  3. Wickens, Michael R, 1972. "A Note on the Use of Proxy Variables," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 40(4), pages 759-61, July.
  4. Kuroda, Sachiko & Yamamoto, Isamu, 2003. "Are Japanese Nominal Wages Downwardly Rigid? (Part I): Examinations of Nominal Wage Change Distributions," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 21(2), pages 1-29, August.
  5. Kahn, Shulamit, 1997. "Evidence of Nominal Wage Stickiness from Microdata," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(5), pages 993-1008, December.
  6. Beth Anne Wilson, 1999. "Wage rigidity: a look inside the firm," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1999-22, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Kimura, Takeshi & Ueda, Kazuo, 2001. "Downward Nominal Wage Rigidity in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 50-67, March.
  8. Bound, John, et al, 1994. "Evidence on the Validity of Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Labor Market Data," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(3), pages 345-68, July.
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  10. Farès, J. & Hogan, S., 2000. "The Employment Costs of Downward Nominal-Wage Rigidity," Working Papers 00-1, Bank of Canada.
  11. Joseph G. Altonji & Paul J. Devereux, 1999. "The Extent and Consequences of Downward Nominal Wage Rigidity," NBER Working Papers 7236, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Takatoshi Ito, 2004. "Inflation Targeting and Japan: Why has the Bank of Japan not Adopted Inflation Targeting?," NBER Working Papers 10818, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Kuroda, Sachiko & Yamamoto, Isamu, 2013. "Firms’ demand for work hours: Evidence from matched firm-worker data in Japan," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 57-73.
  3. Carlsson, Mikael & Westermark, Andreas, 2007. "Optimal Monetary Policy under Downward Nominal Wage Rigidity," Working Paper Series 206, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  4. Hiroshi Fujiki & Howard J. Wall, 2006. "Controlling for geographic dispersion when estimating the Japanese Phillips curve," Working Papers 2006-057, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  5. Kengo Yasui & Shinji Takenaka, 2005. "Deflation and Downward Nominal Wage Rigidity: Evidence from Japan," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 05-21, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
  6. Bläs, Barno, 2006. "Ausmaß und reale Konsequenzen nach unter starrer Nominallöhne. Eine Untersuchung für den deutschen Arbeitsmarkt," University of Regensburg Working Papers in Business, Economics and Management Information Systems 416, University of Regensburg, Department of Economics.
  7. Christofides, Louis N. & Li, Dingding, 2005. "Nominal and real wage rigidity in a friction model," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 235-241, May.
  8. KURODA Sachiko & YAMAMOTO Isamu, 2011. "Firm's demand for work hours: Evidence from multi-country and matched firm-worker data," Discussion papers 11024, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
  9. Sara Gabriela Castellanos Pascacio & Rodrigo García Verdú & David Kaplan, 2004. "Wage Rigidities in Mexico: Evidence from the Administrative Records of the Mexican Social Security Institute (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social)," Working Papers 2004-03, Banco de México.
  10. Shin-Ichi Nishiyama, 2009. "Monetary Policy Lag, Zero Lower Bound, and Inflation Targeting," Working Papers 09-2, Bank of Canada.
  11. Takatoshi Ito & Frederic S. Mishkin, 2004. "Two Decades of Japanese Monetary Policy and the Deflation Problem," NBER Working Papers 10878, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Kuroda, Sachiko & Yamamoto, Isamu, 2003. "Are Japanese Nominal Wages Downwardly Rigid? (Part I): Examinations of Nominal Wage Change Distributions," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 21(2), pages 1-29, August.

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