Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login

Self-reported sexual orientation and earnings: Evidence from California

Contents:

Author Info

  • Christopher S. Carpenter
Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    Researchers using the 1988-96 General Social Survey (GSS) have found that behaviorally gay/bisexual men earn 15-30% less, and behaviorally lesbian/ bisexual women earn 20-30% more, than similar heterosexuals. This study uses confidential data on self-reported sexual orientation for 50,000 adults in California in 2001, providing more than five times as many respondents who identify themselves as sexual minorities as does the GSS. Previous approaches are extended by using more complete data on earnings, work effort, and job characteristics. Apart from the well-documented marriage premium, the author finds no statistically or economically significant independent effect of a gay or lesbian sexual orientation on earnings. There is some evidence that bisexual men and women earn less than heterosexuals. Analysis of more recent GSS data (including data from 1998-2000) suggests the findings of previous studies are somewhat sensitive to the time period considered. (Free full-text download available at http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/ilrreview/.)

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL: http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/ilrreview/vol58/iss2/5
    Download Restriction: At http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/ilrreview/, all visitors can get free full text downloads of articles published between April 2003 and 18 months prior to today's date. A subscription is required for full-text downloads of more recent articles. Researchers can find older issues of the Review at http://www.jstore.org.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School in its journal ILR Review.

    Volume (Year): 58 (2005)
    Issue (Month): 2 (January)
    Pages: 258-273

    as in new window
    Handle: RePEc:ilr:articl:v:58:y:2005:i:2:p:258-273

    Contact details of provider:
    Fax: 607-255-8016
    Web page: http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/ilrreview/
    More information through EDIRC

    Order Information:
    Postal: 381 Ives East, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-3901
    Email:
    Web: http://digitalcommons.ilr.cornell.edu/ilrreview/

    Related research

    Keywords:

    References

    No references listed on IDEAS
    You can help add them by filling out this form.

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as in new window

    Cited by:
    1. B. Vandecasteele & M. Geuens, 2006. "Consumer Innovativeness and GLB: A comparative study," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 06/364, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    2. Carpenter, Christopher S., 2007. "Revisiting the income penalty for behaviorally gay men: Evidence from NHANES III," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 25-34, January.
    3. Madeline Zavodny, 2008. "Is there a ‘marriage premium’ for gay men?," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 369-389, December.
    4. Laurent, Thierry & Mihoubi, Ferhat, 2011. "Sexual orientation and wage discrimination in France: the hidden side of the rainbow," MPRA Paper 33723, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Stephan Humpert, 2012. "Somewhere over the Rainbow: Sexual Orientation Discrimination in Germany," Working Paper Series in Economics 245, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
    6. Ali M Ahmed & Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2011. "Sexual orientation and occupational rank," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(3), pages 2422-2433.
    7. Nick Drydakis, . "Sexual Orientation, Demography and Labor Relations," Working Papers 0906, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
    8. Plug, Erik & Berkhout, Peter, 2008. "Sexual Orientation, Disclosure and Earnings," IZA Discussion Papers 3290, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. Jepsen, Christopher & Jepsen, Lisa K., 2009. "Does home ownership vary by sexual orientation?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 307-315, May.
    10. Ahmed, Ali M. & Hammarstedt, Mats, 2008. "Sexual Orientation and Earnings in Sweden," Working Papers in Economics 285, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics, revised 01 Sep 2005.
    11. Carpenter, Christopher S., 2009. "Sexual orientation and outcomes in college," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 693-703, December.
    12. Drydakis, Nick, 2013. "The Effect of Sexual Activity on Wages," IZA Discussion Papers 7529, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. Vandecasteele, Bert & Geuens, Maggie, 2009. "Revising the myth of gay consumer innovativeness," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 134-144, January.
    14. Uhrig, S.C. Noah, 2014. "An Examination of Poverty and Sexual Orientation in the UK," ISER Working Paper Series 2014-02, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    15. Clarke, Geoffrey & Sevak, Purvi, 2013. "The disappearing gay income penalty," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 121(3), pages 542-545.
    16. Nasser Daneshvary & C. Waddoups & Bradley Wimmer, 2008. "Educational Attainment and the Lesbian Wage Premium," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 365-379, December.
    17. Christopher Carpenter, 2008. "Sexual orientation, income, and non-pecuniary economic outcomes: new evidence from young lesbians in Australia," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 391-408, December.
    18. Ali Ahmed & Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2013. "Sexual orientation and full-time monthly earnings, by public and private sector: evidence from Swedish register data," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 83-108, March.
    19. Drydakis, Nick, 2009. "Sexual orientation discrimination in the labour market," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 364-372, August.

    Lists

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ilr:articl:v:58:y:2005:i:2:p:258-273. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (ILR Review).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.