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The wage effects of sexual orientation discrimination


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  • M. V. Lee Badgett
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    This study is the first to apply the econometric tools developed in the study of race and gender discrimination to the newer question of sexual orientation discrimination. Analyzing pooled 1989-91 data from a national random sample, the General Social Survey, the author finds that gay and bisexual male workers earned from 11% to 27% less than heterosexual male workers with the same experience, education, occupation, marital status, and region of residence. There is also evidence that lesbian and bisexual women earned less than heterosexual women, but this result is not consistently statistically significant across all variable definitions and specifications. (Abstract courtesy JSTOR.)

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School in its journal ILR Review.

    Volume (Year): 48 (1995)
    Issue (Month): 4 (July)
    Pages: 726-739

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    Handle: RePEc:ilr:articl:v:48:y:1995:i:4:p:726-739

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    Cited by:
    1. Shihe Fu & Liwei Shan, 2009. "Corporate Equality and Equity Prices: Doing Well While Doing Good?," EERI Research Paper Series EERI_RP_2009_09, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
    2. Nathan Berg & Donald Lien, 2009. "Sexual orientation and self-reported lying," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 83-104, March.
    3. Madeline Zavodny, 2008. "Is there a ‘marriage premium’ for gay men?," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 369-389, December.
    4. Marieka M. Klawitter & Victor Flatt, 1998. "The effects of state and local antidiscrimination policies on earnings for gays and lesbians," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(4), pages 658-686.
    5. Marieka Klawitter, 1998. "Why Aren't More Economists Doing Research on Sexual Orientation?," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(2), pages 55-59.
    6. Doris Weichselbaumer, 2000. "Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring," Economics working papers, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria 2000-21, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    7. Christopher Carpenter, 2008. "Sexual orientation, income, and non-pecuniary economic outcomes: new evidence from young lesbians in Australia," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, Springer, vol. 6(4), pages 391-408, December.
    8. Erik Plug & Peter Berkhout, 2004. "Effects of sexual preferences on earnings in the Netherlands," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 117-131, February.
    9. Plug, Erik & Berkhout, Peter, 2008. "Sexual Orientation, Disclosure and Earnings," IZA Discussion Papers 3290, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. John M. Blandford, . "Evidence of the Role of Sexual Orientation in the Determination of Earnings Outcomes," University of Chicago - Population Research Center, Chicago - Population Research Center 2000-01, Chicago - Population Research Center.
    11. Ali M. Ahmed & Mats Hammarstedt, 2009. "Detecting Discrimination against Homosexuals: Evidence from a Field Experiment on the Internet," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 76(303), pages 588-597, 07.
    12. McLeish, Kendra N. & Oxoby, Robert J., 2007. "Identity, Cooperation, and Punishment," IZA Discussion Papers 2572, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. Antecol, Heather & Steinberger, Michael D., 2009. "Female Labor Supply Differences by Sexual Orientation: A Semi-Parametric Decomposition Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 4029, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    14. Ali M Ahmed & Lina Andersson & Mats Hammarstedt, 2011. "Sexual orientation and occupational rank," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(3), pages 2422-2433.
    15. Richard Cornwall, 1998. "A Primer on Queer Theory for Economists Interested in Social Identities," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(2), pages 73-82.
    16. Lisa K. Jepsen & Christopher A. Jepsen, . "An Empirical Analysis of Same-Sex and Opposite-Sex Couples: Do "Likes" Still Like "Likes" in the '90s?," IPR working papers, Institute for Policy Resarch at Northwestern University 99-5, Institute for Policy Resarch at Northwestern University.
    17. M.V. Lee Badgett & Prue Hyman, 1998. "Explorations - Introduction: Towards Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Perspectives in Economics: Why and How They May Make a Difference," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(2), pages 49-54.
    18. Nasser Daneshvary & C. Waddoups & Bradley Wimmer, 2008. "Educational Attainment and the Lesbian Wage Premium," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 365-379, December.
    19. Nick Drydakis, . "Sexual Orientation, Demography and Labor Relations," Working Papers, University of Crete, Department of Economics 0906, University of Crete, Department of Economics.


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