Temporal Causality and the Dynamics of Exports, Human Capital and Real Income in China
AbstractThis article employs cointegration and error-correction modelling to test the causal relationship between real income, exports and human capital stock using data for China over the period 1960 to 1999. We find that real exports, human capital and real income are cointegrated when real exports is the dependent variable, but are not cointegrated when human capital or real income are the dependent variable. In the short-run we find evidence of bi-directional Granger causality between human capital and real exports, unidirectional Granger causality running from real income to human capital and neutrality between real exports and real income.
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Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Department of General Business, Southeastern Louisiana University in its journal The International Journal of Applied Economics.
Volume (Year): 1 (2004)
Issue (Month): 1 (September)
China; exports; human capital; causality;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- R00 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General - - - General
- Z0 - Other Special Topics - - General
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- Qazi Muhammad Adnan Hye, 2012. "Exports, imports and economic growth in China: an ARDL analysis," Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 5(1), pages 42-55, February.
- Muhammad Shahbaz, 2010. "Income inequality-economic growth and non-linearity: a case of Pakistan," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(8), pages 613-636, July.
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