Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Origins and dynamics of university spin-offs: the case of Hong Kong

Contents:

Author Info

  • Ming Chu Leung
  • John A. Mathews
Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    This paper reviews the experience of Hong Kong's university-based spin-offs and start-up enterprises established by five universities over the past decade and a half. It focuses on their development at both the early and later stages. A principal finding is a relatively high survival rate of 73% for the first five years of their operation. It compares the Hong Kong experience with those found outside the Asia-Pacific region. The paper focuses on the technology transfer processes, practices and obstacles faced by the enterprises. The strength of this study and its conclusions are based on its analysis of primary data collected from the total university-based spin-offs and start-up enterprises population spun off in the period 1991 to 2004 (with some partial updating to 2008). We discuss the pattern of spin-offs pursued by the universities of HK and our conclusions as to which model seems to work best.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL: http://www.inderscience.com/link.php?id=39624
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Inderscience Enterprises Ltd in its journal Int. J. of Transitions and Innovation Systems.

    Volume (Year): 1 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 175-201

    as in new window
    Handle: RePEc:ids:ijtisy:v:1:y:2011:i:2:p:175-201

    Contact details of provider:
    Web page: http://www.inderscience.com/browse/index.php?journalID==160

    Related research

    Keywords: Hong Kong; innovation; university spin-offs; USOs; technology transfer offices; TTOs; entrepreneurship; start-ups; universities.;

    References

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
    as in new window
    1. Kathrin Müller, 2008. "Academic Spin-Off's Transfer Speed - Analyzing the Time from Leaving University to Venture," DRUID Working Papers 08-07, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
    2. Jonathan Michael Feldman & Magnus Klofsten, 2000. "Medium-Sized Firms and the Limits to Growth: A Case Study in the Evolution of a Spin-Off Firm," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(5), pages 631-650, October.
    3. Weiping Wu, 2010. "Managing and incentivizing research commercialization in Chinese Universities," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 203-224, April.
    4. Donald Siegel & Mike Wright & Wendy Chapple & Andy Lockett, 2008. "Assessing The Relative Performance Of University Technology Transfer In The Us And Uk: A Stochastic Distance Function Approach," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(7-8), pages 717-729.
    5. Wright, Mike & Lockett, Andy & Clarysse, Bart & Binks, Martin, 2006. "University spin-out companies and venture capital," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 481-501, May.
    6. Clarysse, Bart & Wright, Mike & Lockett, Andy & Van de Velde, Els & Vohora, Ajay, 2005. "Spinning out new ventures: a typology of incubation strategies from European research institutions," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 183-216, March.
    7. Rasmussen, Einar & Borch, Odd Jarl, 2010. "University capabilities in facilitating entrepreneurship: A longitudinal study of spin-off ventures at mid-range universities," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 602-612, June.
    8. Elisa Salvador, 2011. "Are science parks and incubators good “brand names” for spin-offs? The case study of Turin," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 36(2), pages 203-232, April.
    9. Harmon, Brian & Ardishvili, Alexander & Cardozo, Richard & Elder, Tait & Leuthold, John & Parshall, John & Raghian, Michael & Smith, Donald, 1997. "Mapping the university technology transfer process," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(6), pages 423-434, November.
    10. Bozeman, Barry, 2000. "Technology transfer and public policy: a review of research and theory," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(4-5), pages 627-655, April.
    11. Djordje Djokovic & Vangelis Souitaris, 2008. "Spinouts from academic institutions: a literature review with suggestions for further research," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 225-247, June.
    12. Goldfarb, Brent & Henrekson, Magnus, 2003. "Bottom-up versus top-down policies towards the commercialization of university intellectual property," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 639-658, April.
    13. Franklin, Stephen J & Wright, Mike & Lockett, Andy, 2001. " Academic and Surrogate Entrepreneurs in University Spin-Out Companies," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 26(1-2), pages 127-41, January.
    14. Junfu Zhang, 2009. "The performance of university spin-offs: an exploratory analysis using venture capital data," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 255-285, June.
    15. Catherine Renault, 2006. "Academic Capitalism and University Incentives for Faculty Entrepreneurship," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 227-239, 03.
    16. Siegel, Donald S. & Waldman, David & Link, Albert, 2003. "Assessing the impact of organizational practices on the relative productivity of university technology transfer offices: an exploratory study," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 27-48, January.
    17. Bramwell, Allison & Wolfe, David A., 2008. "Universities and regional economic development: The entrepreneurial University of Waterloo," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1175-1187, September.
    18. Dahlstrand, Asa Lindholm, 1997. "Growth and inventiveness in technology-based spin-off firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 331-344, October.
    19. Josh Lerner, 2005. "The University and the Start-Up:Lessons from the Past Two Decades," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 30(2_2), pages 49-56, 01.
    20. Grandi, Alessandro & Grimaldi, Rosa, 2005. "Academics' organizational characteristics and the generation of successful business ideas," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 821-845, November.
    21. Di Gregorio, Dante & Shane, Scott, 2003. "Why do some universities generate more start-ups than others?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 209-227, February.
    22. Alan D. MacPherson, 1998. "Academic-industry linkages and small firm innovation: evidence from the scientific instruments sector," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(4), pages 261-276, January.
    23. Mustar, Philippe & Renault, Marie & Colombo, Massimo G. & Piva, Evila & Fontes, Margarida & Lockett, Andy & Wright, Mike & Clarysse, Bart & Moray, Nathalie, 2006. "Conceptualising the heterogeneity of research-based spin-offs: A multi-dimensional taxonomy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 289-308, March.
    24. Markman, Gideon D. & Gianiodis, Peter T. & Phan, Phillip H. & Balkin, David B., 2005. "Innovation speed: Transferring university technology to market," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1058-1075, September.
    25. Rory O’Shea & Harveen Chugh & Thomas Allen, 2008. "Determinants and consequences of university spinoff activity: a conceptual framework," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 33(6), pages 653-666, December.
    26. Chang, Yuan-Chieh & Yang, Phil Y. & Chen, Ming-Huei, 2009. "The determinants of academic research commercial performance: Towards an organizational ambidexterity perspective," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 936-946, July.
    27. Woolgar, Lee, 2007. "New institutional policies for university-industry links in Japan," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(8), pages 1261-1274, October.
    28. Meseri, Ofer & Maital, Shlomo, 2001. " A Survey Analysis of University-Technology Transfer in Israel: Evaluation of Projects and Determinants of Success," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 26(1-2), pages 115-26, January.
    29. Poh-Kam Wong, 2007. "Commercializing biomedical science in a rapidly changing “triple-helix” nexus: The experience of the National University of Singapore," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 32(4), pages 367-395, August.
    30. Elyse Golob, 2006. "Capturing the Regional Economic Benefits of University Technology Transfer: A Case Study," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 31(6), pages 685-695, November.
    31. Link, Albert N. & Siegel, Donald S., 2005. "University-based technology initiatives: Quantitative and qualitative evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 253-257, April.
    32. Hu, Mei-Chih & Mathews, John A., 2005. "National innovative capacity in East Asia," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1322-1349, November.
    33. Lehrer, Mark & Nell, Phillip & Gärber, Lisa, 2009. "A national systems view of university entrepreneurialism: Inferences from comparison of the German and US experience," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 268-280, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Lists

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ids:ijtisy:v:1:y:2011:i:2:p:175-201. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Graham Langley).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.