The Shadow Economy in NorwayDemand for Currency Approach
AbstractThe main purpose of this study is to measure the level of the shadow economy in Norway following the demand for currency approach. The question analyzed is how well does this approach capture the level of shadow economy in the face of a decreasing level of currency in circulation and an increasing use of electronic payment system. In this study, a decreasing level of the shadow economy in Norway is found since mid-1990s, starting with 8.8% of the shadow economy relative to GDP in 1991, up to 10.2% in 1995 and thereafter declining to a level of 5.6% of GDP in 2002. The explanation for the decline of the level of shadow economy relative to GDP could be a decreasing demand for currency for transaction going along with an increase of electronic payment instruments. Also, in Norway, a broad tax reform was implemented in 1992 with the purpose of reducing tax-induced distortions by lowering the tax rates and broadening the tax base. One of the main causes of shadow economy is considered to be the burden of direct and indirect tax to the individuals, but the complexity of the tax system is also an important factor that may have an impact on the level of shadow economy.
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Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by IUP Publications in its journal The IUP Journal of Monetary Economics.
Volume (Year): III (2005)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Pages: 61 - 78
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Other versions of this item:
- Shima, Isilda, 2004. "The shadow economy in Norway: Demand for currency approach," Memorandum, Oslo University, Department of Economics 10/2004, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
- C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models &bull Diffusion Processes
- E41 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Demand for Money
- H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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- Stanisław Cichocki, 2008. "Shadow economy and its relations with tax system and state budget in Poland 1995 - 2007," Working Papers 2008-05, Faculty of Economic Sciences, University of Warsaw.
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