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Sticks and Stones: The Impact of the Definitions of Brownfield in Policies on Socio-Economic Sustainability

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  • Yu-Ting Tang

    ()
    (School of Geography, Sir Clive Granger Building, University of Nottingham, University Park, NG7 2RD, UK)

  • C. Paul Nathanail

    ()
    (School of Geography, Sir Clive Granger Building, University of Nottingham, University Park, NG7 2RD, UK)

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    Abstract

    Many countries encourage brownfield regeneration as a means of sustainable development but define “brownfield” differently. Specifically, the definitions of brownfield in the regeneration policies of countries with higher population densities usually promote recycling land that is previously developed, whether or not there is chemical contamination. Further, the de facto definition of brownfield used by the UK government focuses on previously developed land that is unused or underused. The ANOVA in this study revealed that local authorities in England (n = 296) with higher percentages of derelict and vacant land tended to be more deprived based on the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation, which evaluate deprivation from the aspects of income, employment, health, education, housing, crime, and living environment. However, the percentage of previously developed land in use but with further development potential had no significant effect on the deprivation conditions. The Blair-Brown Government (1997~2010) encouraged more than 60% of new dwellings to be established on the previously developed land in England. The analyses in this study showed that this target, combined with the definition of brownfield in the policy, may have facilitated higher densities of residential development on previously developed land but without addressing the deprivation problems. These observations indicate that a definition of brownfield in regeneration policies should focus on previously developed land that is now vacant or derelict if land recycling is to contribute to sustainable communities.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by MDPI, Open Access Journal in its journal Sustainability.

    Volume (Year): 4 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 5 (May)
    Pages: 840-862

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    Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:4:y:2012:i:5:p:840-862:d:17500

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    Web page: http://www.mdpi.com/

    Related research

    Keywords: brownfield regeneration; deprivation; socio-economic sustainability;

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    References

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    1. Christopher De Sousa, 2004. "The greening of brownfields in American cities," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(4), pages 579-600.
    2. Christopher De Sousa, 2000. "Brownfield Redevelopment versus Greenfield Development: A Private Sector Perspective on the Costs and Risks Associated with Brownfield Redevelopment in the Greater Toronto Area," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(6), pages 831-853.
    3. Webster, David, 2000. "The Geographical Concentration of Labour-Market Disadvantage," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(1), pages 114-28, Spring.
    4. Nijkamp, Peter & Rodenburg, Caroline A. & Wagtendonk, Alfred J., 2002. "Success factors for sustainable urban brownfield development: A comparative case study approach to polluted sites," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 235-252, February.
    5. Spelman, William, 1993. "Abandoned buildings: Magnets for crime?," Journal of Criminal Justice, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 481-495.
    6. Peter Mieszkowski & Edwin S. Mills, 1993. "The Causes of Metropolitan Suburbanization," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 7(3), pages 135-147, Summer.
    7. Sandra Alker & Victoria Joy & Peter Roberts & Nathan Smith, 2000. "The Definition of Brownfield," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(1), pages 49-69.
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