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Evaluation of CO 2 Application Requirements for On-Farm Mass Depopulation of Swine in a Disease Emergency

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Author Info

  • Larry Stikeleather

    ()
    (Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7625, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA)

  • William Morrow

    ()
    (Animal Science Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA)

  • Robert Meyer

    ()
    (Department of Clinical Studies, College of Vet Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USA)

  • Craig Baird

    ()
    (Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7625, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA)

  • Burt Halbert

    ()
    (Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7625, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA)

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    Abstract

    When an emergency swine disease outbreak, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), occurs, it will be necessary to rapidly and humanely depopulate and dispose of infected and susceptible pigs to limit viral replications and disease spread. Methods other than handling individual pigs will be required to achieve the necessary rapidity. Suitable and practical on-farm methods will require depopulating large numbers of pigs at a time outside confinement buildings. The process must be easily implemented with readily available materials and equipment, while providing for the safety and well-being of personnel. Carbon dioxide gas (CO 2) is the means of choice, and this study analyzed the methods and requirements for delivering the gas into large volume truck bodies, corrals, dumpsters or other such chambers that may be used. The issues studied included: How the gas should be introduced to achieve the needed spatial distribution; whether plenums are required in the chambers; and the importance of sealing all chamber cracks and edges except around the top cover to limit CO 2 dilution and leakage. Analysis was done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, and primary results were verified experimentally. The CFD findings and experimental results are compared, and recommendations are discussed.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by MDPI, Open Access Journal in its journal Agriculture.

    Volume (Year): 3 (2013)
    Issue (Month): 4 (September)
    Pages: 599-612

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    Handle: RePEc:gam:jagris:v:3:y:2013:i:4:p:599-612:d:29065

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    Web page: http://www.mdpi.com/

    Related research

    Keywords: swine; pigs; disease outbreak; disease emergency; depopulation; euthanasia; carbon dioxide; CO 2; computational fluid dynamics (CFD);

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    1. Beghin, John C. & Fabiosa, Jacinto F. & Dong, Fengxia & Elobeid, Amani & Fuller, Frank H. & Hart, Chad E. & Matthey, Holger & Saak, Alexander E. & Tokgoz, Simla & Meyer, Seth D. & Wailes, Eric J., 2005. "Factors Affecting World Agriculture," Staff General Research Papers 12756, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
      • Babcock, Bruce A. & Fabiosa, Jacinto F. & Matthey, Holger & Isik, Murat & Tokgoz, Simla & Elobeid, Amani & Meyer, Seth D. & Fuller, Frank H. & Hart, Chad E. & Saak, Alexander & Kovarik, Karen P., 2004. "Factors Affecting World Agriculture," Staff General Research Papers 12757, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    2. Anonymous, 2005. "Trends in Australian Agriculture," Commission Research Papers 31903, Productivity Commission.
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