Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Evaluation of Biofertilizers in Irrigated Rice: Effects on Grain Yield at Different Fertilizer Rates


Author Info

  • Niño Paul Meynard Banayo

    (International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Laguna 4030, Philippines)

  • Pompe C. Sta. Cruz

    (Crop Science Cluster, College of Agriculture (CA), University of the Philippines at Los Baños (UPLB), Laguna 4031, Philippines)

  • Edna A. Aguilar

    (Crop Science Cluster, College of Agriculture (CA), University of the Philippines at Los Baños (UPLB), Laguna 4031, Philippines)

  • Rodrigo B. Badayos

    (Agricultural Systems Cluster, College of Agriculture (CA), University of the Philippines at Los Baños (UPLB), Laguna 4031, Philippines)

  • Stephan M. Haefele

    (International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Laguna 4030, Philippines)

Registered author(s):


    Biofertilizers are becoming increasingly popular in many countries and for many crops, but very few studies on their effect on grain yield have been conducted in rice. Therefore, we evaluated three different biofertilizers (based on Azospirillum , Trichoderma , or unidentified rhizobacteria) in the Philippines during four cropping seasons between 2009 and 2011, using four different fertilizer rates (100% of the recommended rate [RR], 50% RR, 25% RR, and no fertilizer as Control). The experiments were conducted under fully irrigated conditions in a typical lowland rice environment. Significant yield increases due to biofertilizer use were observed in all experimental seasons with the exception of the 2008/09 DS. However, the effect on rice grain yield varied between biofertilizers, seasons, and fertilizer treatments. In relative terms, the seasonal yield increase across fertilizer treatments was between 5% and 18% for the best biofertilizer ( Azospirillum -based), but went up to 24% in individual treatments. Absolute grain yield increases due to biofertilizer were usually below 0.5 t·ha −1 , corresponding to an estimated additional N uptake of less than 7.5 kg N ha −1 . The biofertilizer effect on yield did not significantly interact with the inorganic fertilizer rate used but the best effects on grain yield were achieved at low to medium fertilizer rates. Nevertheless, positive effects of the biofertilizers even occurred at grain yields up to 5 t·ha −1 . However, the trends in our results seem to indicate that biofertilizers might be most helpful in rainfed environments with limited inorganic fertilizer input. However, for use in these target environments, biofertilizers need to be evaluated under conditions with abiotic stresses typical of such systems such as drought, soil acidity, or low soil fertility.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by MDPI, Open Access Journal in its journal Agriculture.

    Volume (Year): 2 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 1 (March)
    Pages: 73-86

    as in new window
    Handle: RePEc:gam:jagris:v:2:y:2012:i:1:p:73-86:d:16643

    Contact details of provider:
    Web page:

    Related research

    Keywords: Azospirillum ; biofertilizer; grain yield; inorganic fertilizer; PGPR; plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria; rice; Trichoderma;

    Find related papers by JEL classification:


    No references listed on IDEAS
    You can help add them by filling out this form.



    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.


    Access and download statistics


    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jagris:v:2:y:2012:i:1:p:73-86:d:16643. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.