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Compensation Policy and the Investment Opportunity Set

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  • Jennifer J. Gaver
  • Kenneth M. Gaver
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    Abstract

    We analyze the proportions of executive pay derived from salary, bonus, long-term incentive compensation, and stock-based compensation for a sample of 321 Fortune 1,000 firms in 1992. We find that firms with abundant investment opportunities pay higher levels of total compensation to their executives. Executives of growth firms receive a larger portion of their compensation from long-term incentive compensation (such as performance awards, restricted stock grants, and stock option grants), while those of non-growth firms receive a larger portion of their pay from fixed salary. An implication is that long-term incentives contracts reduce agency costs associated with manager-shareholder information asymmetries in growth firms.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Financial Management Association in its journal Financial Management.

    Volume (Year): 24 (1995)
    Issue (Month): 1 (Spring)
    Pages:

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    Handle: RePEc:fma:fmanag:gaver95

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    Cited by:
    1. Rainer Niemann & Dirk Simons, 2002. "Costs, Benefits, and Tax-induced Distortions of Stock Option Plans," CESifo Working Paper Series 815, CESifo Group Munich.
    2. Chia-Ying Chan & Ling-Chu Lee & Ming-Chun Wang, 2010. "Employee stock options pricing and the implication of restricted exercise price: evidence from Taiwan," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 247-271, February.
    3. Scott W. Barnhart & Michael F. Spivey & John C. Alexander, 2000. "Do firm and state antitakeover provisions affect how well CEOs earn their pay?," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(8), pages 315-328.
    4. Bushman, Robert & Chen, Qi & Engel, Ellen & Smith, Abbie, 2004. "Financial accounting information, organizational complexity and corporate governance systems," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 167-201, June.
    5. Agrawal, Anup & Knoeber, Charles R., 1998. "Managerial compensation and the threat of takeover," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 219-239, February.
    6. Atreya Chakraborty & Mark Kazarosian & Emery Trahan, 1999. "Uncertainty in Executive Compensation and Capital Investment: A Panel Study," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 434, Boston College Department of Economics.
    7. Linn, Scott C. & Park, Daniel, 2005. "Outside director compensation policy and the investment opportunity set," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 680-715, September.
    8. Alessandri, Todd M. & Pattit, Jason M., 2014. "Drivers of R&D investment: The interaction of behavioral theory and managerial incentives," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 151-158.
    9. Hutchinson, Marion & Gul, Ferdinand A., 2004. "Investment opportunity set, corporate governance practices and firm performance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 595-614, September.
    10. Carola Frydman & Dirk Jenter, 2010. "CEO Compensation," CESifo Working Paper Series 3277, CESifo Group Munich.
    11. Eva Jansson, 0. "Deregulation, property rights, and legal system," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-25.
    12. Chen, Ming-Yuan, 2010. "Managerial pay adjustments: Decomposition and impact on firm productive efficiency," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 196-207, January.
    13. Van Dalsem, Shane, 2010. "Determinants of CEO severance contracts and their components and the effects of severance contracts on executive turnover," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 62(4), pages 257-272, July.
    14. Shahbaz Sheikh, 2012. "Do CEO compensation incentives affect firm innovation? Purposeā€“The purpose of this paper is to examine if the structure and design of CEO compensation has any effect on firm innovation. It further i," Review of Accounting and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 4-39, February.
    15. Chalevas, Constantinos G., 2011. "The Effect of the Mandatory Adoption of Corporate Governance Mechanisms on Executive Compensation," The International Journal of Accounting, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 138-174, June.
    16. Ryan, Harley Jr. & Wiggins, Roy III, 2001. "The influence of firm- and manager-specific characteristics on the structure of executive compensation," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 101-123, June.
    17. Mak, Y. T. & Roush, M. L., 2000. "Factors Affecting the Characteristics of Boards of Directors: An Empirical Study of New Zealand Initial Public Offering Firms," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 147-159, February.
    18. Baixauli-Soler, J. Samuel & Sanchez-Marin, Gregorio, 2011. "Organizational governance and TMT pay level adjustment," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 64(8), pages 862-870, August.
    19. David Blackwell & Donna Dudney & Kathleen Farrell, 2007. "Changes in CEO compensation structure and the impact on firm performance following CEO turnover," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 315-338, October.
    20. Chen, Sheng-Syan & Ho, Kim Wai, 2000. "Corporate diversification, ownership structure, and firm value: The Singapore evidence," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 315-326.

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