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Credit unions and the common bond

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  • William R. Emmons
  • Frank A. Schmid

Abstract

A distinguishing feature of credit unions is the legal requirement that members share a common bond. This organizing principle recently became the focus of national attention when the Supreme Court and the U.S. Congress took opposite sides in a controversy regarding the number of common bonds (fields of membership) that could coexist within a single credit union. In this article, Emmons and Schmid develop and simulate a model of credit-union formation and consolidation to examine the effects of common-bond restrictions on the performance of credit unions. The performance measures are participation rates among potential members and the operating costs of credit unions. Using a semiparametric econometric model and a large dataset drawn from federally chartered occupational credit unions in 1996, they find that, for a given number of potential members, credit unions with multiple-group charters have higher participation rates. They also find that, for a given number of members, operating costs of multiple-group credit unions are higher. Average operating costs at large credit unions, however, decrease as the number of members increases. Emmons and Schmid also find that local deposit-market concentration is related to participation rates and operating costs of credit unions.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis in its journal Review.

Volume (Year): (1999)
Issue (Month): Sep ()
Pages: 41-64

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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedlrv:y:1999:i:sep:p:41-64:n:v.81no.5

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Keywords: Credit unions;

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References

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  1. Kane, Edward J. & Hendershott, Robert, 1996. "The federal deposit insurance fund that didn't put a bite on U.S. taxpayers," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(8), pages 1305-1327, September.
  2. William R. Emmons & Frank A. Schmid, 1999. "Wages and risk-taking in occupational credit unions: theory and evidence," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 13-32.
  3. Cleveland, William S. & Devlin, Susan J. & Grosse, Eric, 1988. "Regression by local fitting : Methods, properties, and computational algorithms," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 87-114, January.
  4. White, Halbert, 1980. "A Heteroskedasticity-Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator and a Direct Test for Heteroskedasticity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(4), pages 817-38, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Ebrahim, M. Shahid, 2009. "Can an Islamic model of housing finance cooperative elevate the economic status of the underprivileged?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 72(3), pages 864-883, December.
  2. Wheelock, David C. & Wilson, Paul W., 2013. "The evolution of cost-productivity and efficiency among US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 75-88.
  3. Silvio Goglio & Yiorgos Alexopoulos, 2009. "Financial Deregulation and Economic Distress: Is There a Future for Financial Co-operatives?," Euricse Working Papers 09001, Euricse (European Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Enterprises).
  4. Derek C. Jones & Panu Kalmi, 2012. "Economies of Scale Versus Participation: a Co-operative Dilemma?," Journal of Entrepreneurial and Organizational Diversity, European Research Institute on Cooperative and Social Enterprises, vol. 1(1), pages 37-64, December.
  5. Alexopoulos, Yiorgos & Goglio, Silvio, 2011. "Financial Cooperatives: Problems and Challenges in the Post-Crisis Era," Journal of Rural Cooperation, Hebrew University, Center for Agricultural Economic Research, vol. 39(1).
  6. Joselito Gallardo & Michael Goldberg & Bikki Randhawa, 2006. "Strategic Alliances to Scale Up Financial Services in Rural Areas," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6960, July.
  7. David C. Wheelock & Paul Wilson, 2009. "Robust, dynamic nonparametric benchmarking: the evolution of cost-productivity and efficiency among U.S. credit unions," Working Papers 2009-008, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  8. Goddard, John A. & McKillop, Donal G. & Wilson, John O. S., 2002. "The growth of US credit unions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(12), pages 2327-2356.
  9. William R. Emmons & Frank A. Schmid, 2001. "Membership structure, competition, and occupational credit union deposit rates," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 41-50.
  10. William R. Emmons & Frank A. Schmid, 2002. "Pricing and Dividend Policies in Open Credit Cooperatives," Journal of Institutional and Theoretical Economics (JITE), Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 158(2), pages 234-, June.
  11. Joanne G. Tokle & Robert J. Tokle, 2002. "Factors Determining Credit Union Loan Rates in Local Markets," New York Economic Review, New York State Economics Association (NYSEA), vol. 33(1), pages 52-60.
  12. Tschöpel, Michael, 2012. "Die Wirkungskanäle der genossenschaftlichen Eigentümermerkmale: Implikationen für das mitgliederorientierte Management in Genossenschaftsbanken," Arbeitspapiere 127, Westfälsche Wilhelms-Universität Münster (WWU), Institut für Genossenschaftswesen.
  13. Timothy H. Hannan, 2003. "The impact of credit unions on the rates offered for retail deposits by banks and thrift institutions," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2003-06, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

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