Scale without mass: business process replication and industry dynamics
AbstractIn the mid-1990s, productivity growth accelerated sharply in the U.S. economy. In this paper, we identify several other changes that have occurred during the same time and argue that they are consistent with an increased use of information technology (IT) in general and enterprise IT in particular. Case studies and econometric evidence demonstrate that IT has enabled firms to more rapidly replicate improved business processes throughout an organization, thereby not only increasing productivity but also market share and market value. We develop a simple model that shows how IT-enabled business process replication will also increase both turbulence and concentration at the industry level. We then document a substantial increase in turbulence starting in the 1990s, as measured by the average intra-industry rank change in sales, enterprise value, and other metrics. In particular, we find that IT-intensive industries account for most of this increase in turbulence, especially after 1996. In addition, we find that IT-intensive industries became more concentrated than non IT-intensive industries after 1996, reversing the previous trend. The combination of increased turbulence and concentration, especially among IT-intensive industries, is consistent with an increasingly Schumpeterian style of competition. We conclude that the improved ability of firms to replicate business innovations is linked not only to productivity increases, but also to changes in the nature of business competition itself.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco in its journal Proceedings.
Volume (Year): (2007)
Issue (Month): Nov ()
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Nick Bloom & John Van Reenen, 2006.
"Measuring and explaining management practices across firms and countries,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
733, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Nicholas Bloom & John Van Reenen, 2007. "Measuring and Explaining Management Practices Across Firms and Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 122(4), pages 1351-1408, November.
- Nick Bloom & John Van Reenen, 2006. "Measuring and Explaining Management Practices Across Firms and Countries," CEP Discussion Papers dp0716, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Bloom, Nicholas & Van Reenen, John, 2006. "Measuring and Explaining Management Practices Across Firms and Countries," CEPR Discussion Papers 5581, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Nick Bloom & John Van Reenen, 2006. "Measuring and Explaining Management Practices Across Firms and Countries," NBER Working Papers 12216, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Timothy F. Bresnahan & Erik Brynjolfsson & Lorin M. Hitt, 1999.
"Information Technology, Workplace Organization and the Demand for Skilled Labor: Firm-Level Evidence,"
NBER Working Papers
7136, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Timothy F. Bresnahan & Erik Brynjolfsson & Lorin M. Hitt, 2002. "Information Technology, Workplace Organization, And The Demand For Skilled Labor: Firm-Level Evidence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 117(1), pages 339-376, February.
- Paul M Romer, 1999.
"Endogenous Technological Change,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
2135, David K. Levine.
- Erik Brynjolfsson & Haim Mendelson, 1997. "Information Systems and the Organization of Modern Enterprise," Working Paper Series 200, MIT Center for Coordination Science.
- Kevin J. Stiroh, 2002.
"Information Technology and the U.S. Productivity Revival: What Do the Industry Data Say?,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 92(5), pages 1559-1576, December.
- Kevin J. Stiroh, 2001. "Information technology and the U.S. productivity revival: what do the industry data say?," Staff Reports 115, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Brynjolfsson, Erik & Hitt, Lorin M., 2004.
"Computing Productivity: Firm-Level Evidence,"
4210-01, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Diego Comin & Thomas Philippon, 2005.
"The Rise in Firm-Level Volatility: Causes and Consequences,"
NBER Working Papers
11388, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Diego A. Comin & Thomas Philippon, 2006. "The Rise in Firm-Level Volatility: Causes and Consequences," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2005, Volume 20, pages 167-228 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Brynjolfsson, Erik. & Hitt, Lorin M., 1995.
"Paradox lost? : firm-level evidence on the returns to information systems spending,"
3786-95., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Erik Brynjolfsson & Lorin Hitt, 1996. "Paradox Lost? Firm-Level Evidence on the Returns to Information Systems Spending," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 42(4), pages 541-558, April.
- Erik Brynjolfsson & Lorin M. Hitt, 2000. "Beyond Computation: Information Technology, Organizational Transformation and Business Performance," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 23-48, Fall.
- Diego Comin & Sunil Mulani, 2005.
"A Theory of Growth and Volatility at the Aggregate and Firm Level,"
NBER Working Papers
11503, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Comin, Diego & Mulani, Sunil, 2009. "A theory of growth and volatility at the aggregate and firm level," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(8), pages 1023-1042, November.
- Diego Comin & Sunil Mulani, 2007. "A theory of growth and volatility at the aggregate and firm level," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Nov.
- Romer, Paul, 1994.
"New goods, old theory, and the welfare costs of trade restrictions,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 5-38, February.
- Paul M. Romer, 1993. "New Goods, Old Theory, and the Welfare Costs of Trade Restrictions," NBER Working Papers 4452, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Polder, Michael & Leeuwen, George van & Mohnen, Pierre & Raymond, Wladimir, 2009. "Productivity effects of innovation modes," MPRA Paper 18893, University Library of Munich, Germany.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Diane Rosenberger).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.