M1, M2, and the U.S. Equity Exchanges
AbstractWe study the relative positions of M1 and M2 in light of their relationships with four U. S. equity exchanges: S&P500, Dow Jones Industrial, Nasdaq, and Wilshire 5000 composite. It is demonstrated that a long-term equilibrium relationship does indeed exist. Short-run dynamics are also considered and are found to be temporary departures from the long-run equilibrium. Based on a model, which yields robust estimated results and is thus considered well behaved, the direction of causality is established. The model is then put further to test to check the predictive power of the M1 and M2 money aggregates. Based on a set of in- and out-of-sample forecast experiments, the results overwhelmingly indicate that M2 is a better predictive measure and hence a superior indicator than M1. The policy implications of these findings in light of the post financial crisis and the November 2010 US Fed “quantitative easing” policies are discussed.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by SKEMA Business School in its journal Frontiers in Finance and Economics.
Volume (Year): 8 (2011)
Issue (Month): 2 (October)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.ffe.esc-lille.com
Money supply; M1; M2; Stock return; Granger causality; Error Correction Model; Forecasting.;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- E50 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - General
- E51 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Money Supply; Credit; Money Multipliers
- E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Friedman, Milton, 1988. "Money and the Stock Market," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(2), pages 221-45, April.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
- Rogalski, Richard J & Vinso, Joseph D, 1977. "Stock Returns, Money Supply and the Direction of Causality," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(4), pages 1017-30, September.
- R.W. Hafer, 1986. "The response of stock prices to changes in weekly money and the discount rate," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 5-14.
- John B. Carlson & Jeffrey C. Schwarz, 1999. "Effects of movements in equities prices on M2 demand," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q IV, pages 2-9.
- Cooper, Richard V L, 1974. "Efficient Capital Markets and the Quantity Theory of Money," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(3), pages 887-908, June.
- Hamburger, Michael J & Kochin, Levis A, 1972. "Money and Stock Prices: The Channels of Influence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 27(2), pages 231-49, May.
- Miller, Stephen M, 1991. "Monetary Dynamics: An Application of Cointegration and Error-Correction Modeling," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 23(2), pages 139-54, May.
- Boyle, Glenn W, 1990. "Money Demand and the Stock Market in a General Equilibrium Model with Variable Velocity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 1039-53, October.
- John Y. Campbell & Albert S. Kyle, 1988.
"Smart Money, Noise Trading and Stock Price Behavior,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0071, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Campbell, John Y & Kyle, Albert S, 1993. "Smart Money, Noise Trading and Stock Price Behaviour," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(1), pages 1-34, January.
- Kyle, Albert & Campbell, John, 1993. "Smart Money, Noise Trading and Stock Price Behaviour," Scholarly Articles 3208217, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Campbell, J.Y. & Kyle, A.S., 1988. "Smart Money, Noise Trading And Stock Price Behavior," Papers 95, Princeton, Department of Economics - Financial Research Center.
- David A. Pierce & Larry D. Haugh, 1977. "Causality in temporal systems: characterizations and a survey," Special Studies Papers 87, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Gupta, Manak C., 1974. "Money Supply and Stock Prices: A Probabilistic Approach," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(01), pages 57-68, January.
- Fleming, Jeff & Kirby, Chris & Ostdiek, Barbara, 1998. "Information and volatility linkages in the stock, bond, and money markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 111-137, July.
- Kraft, John & Kraft, Arthur, 1977. "Determinants of Common Stock Prices: A Time Series Analysis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 417-25, May.
- Pearce, Douglas K & Roley, V Vance, 1983. " The Reaction of Stock Prices to Unanticipated Changes in Money: A Note," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(4), pages 1323-33, September.
- John Thornton, 1998. "Real stock prices and the long-run demand for money in Germany," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor and Francis Journals, vol. 8(5), pages 513-517.
- Rozeff, Michael S., 1974. "Money and stock prices : Market efficiency and the lag in effect of monetary policy," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 245-302, September.
- Homa, Kenneth E & Jaffee, Dwight M, 1971. "The Supply of Money and Common Stock Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 26(5), pages 1045-66, December.
- Geweke, John & Meese, Richard & Dent, Warren, 1983. "Comparing alternative tests of causality in temporal systems : Analytic results and experimental evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 161-194, February.
- John P. Judd & Bharat Trehan, 1987. "Portfolio substitution and the reliability of M1, M2 and M3 as monetary policy indicators," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Sum, pages 5-29.
- Choudhry, Taufiq, 1996. "Real stock prices and the long-run money demand function: evidence from Canada and the USA," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 1-17, February.
- Darrat, Ali F., 1990. "Stock Returns, Money, and Fiscal Deficits," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 25(03), pages 387-398, September.
- Arthur B. Kennickell & Martha Starr-McCluer & Annika E. Sunden, 1997. "Family finances in the U.S.: recent evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Jan, pages 1-24.
- Foote, William G, 1989. "The Rationality and Efficiency of Stock Price Relative to Money Announcement Information," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 24(2), pages 281-98, May.
- Sims, Christopher A, 1972. "Money, Income, and Causality," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(4), pages 540-52, September.
- Sorensen, Eric H., 1982. "Rational Expectations and the Impact of Money upon Stock Prices," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 17(05), pages 649-662, December.
- Elizabeth Laderman, 1997. "Deposits and demographics?," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Jun 27.
- Duca, John V, 2000. "Financial Technology Shocks and the Case of the Missing M2," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(4), pages 820-39, November.
- Canto, Victor A & Findlay, M C & Reinganum, Marc R, 1985. "Inflation, Money, and Stock Prices: An Alternative Interpretation," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 20(1), pages 95-101, February.
- Huang, Tai-Hsin & Shen, Chung-Hua, 2002. "Seasonal cointegration and cross-equation restrictions on a forward-looking buffer stock model of money demand," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 111(1), pages 11-46, November.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sophie Bodo).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.