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The Achilles Heel of the Dual Income Tax: The Norwegian Case

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  • Annette Alstadsaeter

    ()
    (University of Oslo, Statistics Norway, and CESifo)

Abstract

The dual income tax provides the self-employed individual with large incentives to participate in tax minimizing income shifting. The present paper analyses the income shifting incentives under the Norwegian split model when real capital investments are risky. It concludes that high-income self-employed individuals can incorporate and use the legal form of a widely held corporation as a tax shelter. In addition, real capital investments with a low risk profile are means to shift income from the labor income tax base to the capital income tax base for the highincome self-employed.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Finnish Economic Association in its journal Finnish Economic Papers.

Volume (Year): 20 (2007)
Issue (Month): 1 (Spring)
Pages: 5-22

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Handle: RePEc:fep:journl:v:20:y:2007:i:1:p:5-22

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  1. Roger H. Gordon & Joel Slemrod, 1998. "Are "Real" Responses to Taxes Simply Income Shifting Between Corporate and Personal Tax Bases?," NBER Working Papers 6576, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Thor O. Thoresen, 2004. "Reduced Tax Progressivity in Norway in the Nineties: The Effect from Tax Changes," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 11(4), pages 487-506, 08.
  3. Bond, Stephen R. & Devereux, Michael P., 2003. "Generalised R-based and S-based taxes under uncertainty," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(5-6), pages 1291-1311, May.
  4. Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason & Roger H. Gordon, 1994. "How Much Do Taxes Discourage Incorporation?," Public Economics 9401002, EconWPA.
  5. Roger H. Gordon & Jeffrey K. MacKie-Mason, 1992. "Tax Distortions to the Choice of Organizational Form," NBER Working Papers 4227, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Mikael Apel & Jan Södersten, 1999. "Personal Taxation and Investment Incentives in a Small Open Economy," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 79-88, February.
  7. Goolsbee, Austan, 2004. "The impact of the corporate income tax: evidence from state organizational form data," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(11), pages 2283-2299, September.
  8. Kimball, Miles S, 1990. "Precautionary Saving in the Small and in the Large," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(1), pages 53-73, January.
  9. Sandmo, Agnar, 1970. "The Effect of Uncertainty on Saving Decisions," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(3), pages 353-60, July.
  10. Steve Bond & Michael Devereux, 1993. "On the design of a neutral business tax under uncertainty," IFS Working Papers W93/01, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  11. Pirttilä, Jukka & Selin, Håkan, 2006. "How Successful is the Dual Income Tax? Evidence from the Finnish Tax Reform of 1993," Working Paper Series 2006:26, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
  12. Hansson, Åsa, 2004. "Taxpayers Responsiveness to Tax Rate Changes and Implications for the Cost of Taxation," Working Papers 2004:5, Lund University, Department of Economics.
  13. Tobias Lindhe & Jan Södersten & Ann �berg, 2004. "Economic Effects of Taxing Different Organizational Forms under the Nordic Dual Income Tax," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 11(4), pages 469-485, 08.
  14. Erik Fjaerli & Diderik Lund, 2001. "The choice between owner's wages and dividends under the dual income tax," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 14(2), pages 104-119, Autumn.
  15. Peter Sørensen, 1994. "From the global income tax to the dual income tax: Recent tax reforms in the Nordic countries," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 57-79, February.
  16. Seppo Kari, 1999. "Dynamic Behaviour of the Firm Under Dual Income Taxation," Research Reports 51, Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT).
  17. Sandmo, Agnar, 1985. "The effects of taxation on savings and risk taking," Handbook of Public Economics, in: A. J. Auerbach & M. Feldstein (ed.), Handbook of Public Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 5, pages 265-311 Elsevier.
  18. Paolo M. Panteghini, 2001. "Dual income taxation : the choice of the imputed rate of return," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 14(1), pages 5-13, Spring.
  19. Robin Boadway, 2004. "The Dual Income Tax System - An Overview," CESifo DICE Report, Ifo Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 2(3), pages 03-08, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Thor O. Thoresen & Annette Alstadsæter, 2010. "Shifts in Organizational Form under a Dual Income Tax System," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 66(4), pages 384-418, December.
  2. Annette Alstadsæter & Knut Reidar Wangen, 2008. "Corporations’ Choice of Tax Regime when Transition Costs are Small and Income Shifting Potential is Large," CESifo Working Paper Series 2392, CESifo Group Munich.
  3. Gerhard Wagenhals & Jürgen Buck, 2009. "Implementing a Dual Income Tax in Germany - Effects on Labor Supply and Income Distribution," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 229(1), pages 84-102, February.
  4. Annette Alstadsæter & Erik Fjaerli, 2009. "Neutral Taxation of Shareholder Income? Corporate Responses to an Announced Dividend Tax," CESifo Working Paper Series 2530, CESifo Group Munich.

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