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Ricardian equivalence hypothesis: Evidence from Pakistan

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  • Muhammad Afzal

    (Department of Management Sciences, COMMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad- Pakistan)

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    Abstract

    This paper provides empirical evidence on the soundness and relevance of the Ricardian equivalence hypothesis (REH) for Pakistan over the period 1960__2009. Time series properties have been examined in order to take care of the criticism made against the previous studies on REH notably model-specification, simultaneity bias and stationarity of data. Real income, real consumption, real government expenditure and real government revenue, though nonstationary, are not cointegrated. There is unidirectional causality from real income to real consumption, real government expenditure and real government revenue and from real government expenditure to real government revenue. We used impulse response functions to ascertain the impact of shocks of one variable upon others. The impact of real government expenditure and real government revenue on consumption is most notable and substantial that provides some support in favour of the REH. This happens in the short-run. Stabilization policies are adopted that aim at averting those shocks that harm the economy substantially in the short-run.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by E3 Journals in its journal E3 Journal of Business Management and Economics..

    Volume (Year): 3 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 6 ()
    Pages: 258-265

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    Handle: RePEc:etr:series:v:3:y:2012:i:6:p:258-265

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    Related research

    Keywords: Ricardian Equivalence; Granger-causality; Impulse Response Functions. JEL Classification: H3;

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    1. Barro, Robert J, 1989. "The Ricardian Approach to Budget Deficits," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 3(2), pages 37-54, Spring.
    2. Graham, Fred C & Himarios, Daniel, 1996. "Consumption, Wealth, and Finite Horizons: Tests of Ricardian Equivalence," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 34(3), pages 527-44, July.
    3. Feldstein, Martin S, 1976. "Perceived Wealth in Bonds and Social Security: A Comment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(2), pages 331-36, April.
    4. Evans, Paul, 1988. "Are Consumers Ricardian? Evidence for the United States," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 96(5), pages 983-1004, October.
    5. Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774501.
    6. James G. MacKinnon, 1995. "Numerical Distribution Functions for Unit Root and Cointegration Tests," Working Papers 918, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
    7. James G. MacKinnon & Alfred A. Haug & Leo Michelis, 1996. "Numerical Distribution Functions of Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration," Working Papers 1996_07, York University, Department of Economics.
    8. Seater, John J, 1993. "Ricardian Equivalence," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(1), pages 142-90, March.
    9. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-80, November.
    10. Khalid, Ahmed M., 1996. "Ricardian equivalence: Empirical evidence from developing economies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 413-432, December.
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