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Spain Accession to the EMU - A Long and Hilly Road

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Author Info

  • Manuel Balmaseda

    (Research Department, Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria (BBVA))

  • Miguel Sebastián

    (Research Department, Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria (BBVA))

  • Patry Tello

    (Research Department, Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria (BBVA))

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    Abstract

    Europe has been the driving force of economic policy in Spain over the last four decades and the key factor behind the modernisation and globalisation of the Spanish Economy. Being a founding member of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) marked the achievement of one of the key goals in the process of European integration. This process was carried out in several stages. First, trade openness, which was bolstered by Spanish accession to the EEC in 1986 and the single market in 1992, and foreign direct investment abroad and portfolio investment, which grew exponentially in the run-up to Euro membership. Second, the process of nominal convergence, which allowed a more stable macroeconomic framework. Lower inflation and fiscal consolidation have resulted in higher sustainable growth. However, the process of real integration could have been even more successful. Spain’s income per capita still lies at 84 per cent of the European average. The slow pace of reform, in particular in the labour market, with high labour costs leading to persistent unemployment, and an inappropriate policy-mix in the late 1980s prevented Spain from reaping the full benefits of integration and of EMU. Achieving real convergence is the key challenge facing the Spanish economy in the future and Europe will remain a focal point in this venture.

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    File URL: http://www.esr.ie/Vol33_2Balmaseda_.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2002
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Economic and Social Studies in its journal Economic and Social Review.

    Volume (Year): 33 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 2 ()
    Pages: 195-222

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    Handle: RePEc:eso:journl:v:33:y:2002:i:2:p:195-222

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    Web page: http://www.esr.ie

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    1. Javier Andrés & Ignacio Hernando, 1999. "Does Inflation Harm Economic Growth? Evidence from the OECD," NBER Chapters, in: The Costs and Benefits of Price Stability, pages 315-348 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. ?gel de la Fuente & Rafael Dom?ech, . "Human Capital In Growth Regressions: How Much Difference Does Data Quality Make?," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 446.00, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
    3. Richard E. Baldwin & Joseph F. Francois & Richard Portes, 1997. "The costs and benefits of eastern enlargement: the impact on the EU and central Europe," Economic Policy, CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 12(24), pages 125-176, 04.
    4. Andres, Javier & Hernando, Ignacio & Kruger, Malte, 1996. "Growth, inflation and the exchange rate regime," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 61-65, October.
    5. Domenech, Rafael & Taguas, David & Varela, Juan, 2000. "The effects of budget deficit on national saving in the OECD," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 377-383, December.
    6. Javier Andrés & Ignacio Hernando & David López-Salido, 1998. "The Long-Run Effect of Permanent Disinflations," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 9825, Banco de Espa�a.
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    Cited by:
    1. Ashoka Mody & Franziska Ohnsorge, 2007. "Can Domestic Policies Influence Inflation?," IMF Working Papers 07/257, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Győrffy, Dóra, 2008. "Költségvetési kiigazítás és növekedés az Európai Unióban. Tanulságok Magyarország számára
      [Budget adjustment and growth in the European Union lessons for Hungary]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(11), pages 962-986.

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