The role of corporate governance in earnings management: experience from US banks
AbstractPurpose – The purpose of this research paper is to investigate the role of corporate governance in earnings management behaviour by US listed banks during the era of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (2003-2008). Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines the issue of accounting quality and corporate governance within banking corporations through the use of two different measures of earnings management, namely small positive net income and the difference between discretionary realized security gains and losses and discretionary loan loss provisions (LLPs), by applying a corporate governance index estimated from 63 governance provisions. Findings – The research found convincing evidence that banks with efficient corporate governance mechanisms report small positive income to a lesser extent than banks with weak governance efficiency. Also well-governed banks engage less in aggressive earnings management behaviour through the use of discretionary loan loss provisions and realized security gains and losses. Practical implications – The findings could prove to be valuable to investors since they must take into consideration the efficiency of each bank's corporate governance and demand supplementary information in order to reach a better investment decision when earnings are not highly informative. Social implications – The findings could prove to be useful for regulators since they are responsible for the acceptable level of corporate governance standards. Thus, they must consider strengthening governance mechanisms either though new legislation or stronger enforcement where earnings management is of such magnitude to that serious impedes information transparency and quality. Originality/value – The present study aims to bridge a gap in the literature by investigating corporate governance and earnings management behaviour during a period of transition to an intensively legalized governance environment (SOX Act). The results contribute further evidence to the ongoing debate about the effectiveness of established corporate governance mechanisms.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Emerald Group Publishing in its journal Journal of Applied Accounting Research.
Volume (Year): 13 (2012)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.emeraldinsight.com
Postal: Emerald Group Publishing, Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley, BD16 1WA, UK
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bergstresser, Daniel & Philippon, Thomas, 2006.
"CEO incentives and earnings management,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 80(3), pages 511-529, June.
- Richard J. Herring & Anthony M. Santomero, 2000. "What Is Optimal Financial Regulation?," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 00-34, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Brickley, James A. & Coles, Jeffrey L. & Terry, Rory L., 1994. "Outside directors and the adoption of poison pills," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 371-390, June.
- Lai, Kam-Wah, 2009. "Does audit quality matter more for firms with high investment opportunities?," Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 33-50.
- Jensen, Michael C & Murphy, Kevin J, 1990.
"Performance Pay and Top-Management Incentives,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(2), pages 225-64, April.
- Mary E. Barth & Wayne R. Landsman & Mark H. Lang, 2008. "International Accounting Standards and Accounting Quality," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(3), pages 467-498, 06.
- Byrd, John W. & Hickman, Kent A., 1992. "Do outside directors monitor managers? *1: Evidence from tender offer bids," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 195-221, October.
- Grace C.-M. Hsu & Ping-Sheng Koh, 2005. "Does the Presence of Institutional Investors Influence Accruals Management? Evidence from Australia," Corporate Governance: An International Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(6), pages 809-823, November.
- Agarwal, Sumit & Chomsisengphet, Souphala & Liu, Chunlin & Ghon Rhee, S., 2007. "Earnings management behaviors under different economic environments: Evidence from Japanese banks," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 429-443.
- Ferdinand A. Gul & Judy Tsui & Dan S. Dhaliwal, 2006. "Non-audit services, auditor quality and the value relevance of earnings," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 46(5), pages 797-817.
- Akhigbe, Aigbe & Martin, Anna D., 2008. "Influence of disclosure and governance on risk of US financial services firms following Sarbanes-Oxley," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(10), pages 2124-2135, October.
- J. A. Hausman, 1976.
"Specification Tests in Econometrics,"
185, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Dechow, Patricia M. & Myers, Linda A. & Shakespeare, Catherine, 2010. "Fair value accounting and gains from asset securitizations: A convenient earnings management tool with compensation side-benefits," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1-2), pages 2-25, February.
- Dimitropoulos, Panagiotis E. & Asteriou, Dimitrios, 2010. "The effect of board composition on the informativeness and quality of annual earnings: Empirical evidence from Greece," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 190-205, June.
- Carlos E. Cuevas & Klaus P. Fischer, 2006. "Cooperative Financial Institutions : Issues in Governance, Regulation, and Supervision," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7107, October.
- Mark Lang & Jana Smith Raedy & Michelle Higgins Yetman, 2003. "How Representative Are Firms That Are Cross-Listed in the United States? An Analysis of Accounting Quality," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(2), pages 363-386, 05.
- Renee Adams & Hamid Mehran, 2003. "Is corporate governance different for bank holding companies?," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Apr, pages 123-142.
- Panagiotis Staikouras & Christos Staikouras & Maria-Eleni Agoraki, 2007. "The effect of board size and composition on European bank performance," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 1-27, February.
- Burgstahler, David & Dichev, Ilia, 1997. "Earnings management to avoid earnings decreases and losses," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 99-126, December.
- Lawrence Brown & Marcus Caylor, 2009. "Corporate governance and firm operating performance," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 129-144, February.
- Scholes, Myron S & Wilson, G Peter & Wolfson, Mark A, 1990. "Tax Planning, Regulatory Capital Planning, and Financial Reporting Strategy for Commercial Banks," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 3(4), pages 625-50.
- Leuz, Christian & Nanda, Dhananjay & Wysocki, Peter D., 2003. "Earnings management and investor protection: an international comparison," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 505-527, September.
- Sullivan, Richard J. & Spong, Kenneth R., 2007. "Manager wealth concentration, ownership structure, and risk in commercial banks," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 229-248, April.
- Burns, Natasha & Kedia, Simi, 2008. "Executive option exercises and financial misreporting," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 845-857, May.
- Yermack, David, 1996. "Higher market valuation of companies with a small board of directors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 185-211, February.
- Massimo Sbracia & Andrea Zaghini, 2003.
"The Role of the Banking System in the International Transmission of Shocks,"
The World Economy,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(5), pages 727-754, 05.
- Massimo Sbracia & Andrea Zaghini, 2001. "The Role of the Banking System in the International Transmission of Shocks," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 409, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Franklin Allen & Richard Herring, 2001. "Banking Regulation versus Securities Market Regulation," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 01-29, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
- Shrieves, Ronald E. & Dahl, Drew, 2003. "Discretionary accounting and the behavior of Japanese banks under financial duress," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(7), pages 1219-1243, July.
- Asokan Anandarajan & Iftekhar Hasan & Cornelia McCarthy, 2007. "Use of loan loss provisions for capital, earnings management and signalling by Australian banks," Accounting and Finance, Accounting and Finance Association of Australia and New Zealand, vol. 47(3), pages 357-379.
- Moyer, Susan E., 1990. "Capital adequacy ratio regulations and accounting choices in commercial banks," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 123-154, July.
- Daniel Perez & Vicente Salas-Fumas & Jesus Saurina, 2008. "Earnings and Capital Management in Alternative Loan Loss Provision Regulatory Regimes," European Accounting Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 423-445.
- Eichholtz, Piet & Bauer, Rob & Kok, Nils, 2008.
"Corporate Governance and Performance: the REIT Effect,"
08-3, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Weiss Center.
- Rob Bauer & Piet Eichholtz & Nils Kok, 2010. "Corporate Governance and Performance: The REIT Effect," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 38(1), pages 1-29.
- de Bandt, Olivier & Hartmann, Philipp, 2000.
"Systemic Risk: A Survey,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
2634, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Dechun Wang, 2006. "Founding Family Ownership and Earnings Quality," Journal of Accounting Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(3), pages 619-656, 06.
- Capaul, Mierta & Fremond, Olivier, 2002. "The state of corporate governance - experience from country assessments," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2858, The World Bank.
- Yukihiro Yasuda & Shin'ya Okuda & Masaru Konishi, 2004. "The Relationship Between Bank Risk and Earnings Management: Evidence from Japan," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 22(3), pages 233-248, 05.
- Cornett, Marcia Millon & McNutt, Jamie John & Tehranian, Hassan, 2009. "Corporate governance and earnings management at large U.S. bank holding companies," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 412-430, September.
- Vincent Bouvatier & Laetitia Lepetit & Frank Strobel, 2014.
"Bank Income Smoothing, Ownership Concentration and the Regulatory Environment,"
- Bouvatier, Vincent & Lepetit, Laetitia & Strobel, Frank, 2014. "Bank income smoothing, ownership concentration and the regulatory environment," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 253-270.
- repec:hal:wpaper:hal-00916674 is not listed on IDEAS
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Louise Lister).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.