The gender gap in early career in Mongolia
AbstractPurpose – The paper's aim is to study the determinants of gender differences in early career in Mongolia, one of the 50 poorest countries of the world. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis takes advantage of an ad hoc school to work survey (SWTS) on young people aged 15-29 years carried out in 2006. Extended and augmented Mincerian earning equations are run and then the Juhn-Murphy-Pierce (JMP) decomposition method is applied to them to disentangle the quantity effect, the price effect and the residual wage distribution. Findings – On average, female wages are not lower than those of males. However, although not statistically significant among teenagers (15-19), the conditional gender gap becomes significant and sizeable for the over-20s. The JMP decomposition shows that most of the gap is due to differences in the way the market values the same characteristics of men and women: in fact, quantity effects tend to reduce, whereas price effects tend to increase the gap. If wages were paid equally, women should have 11.7 per cent more for their higher education attainment and overall 22 per cent more, a substantial gap for the low earnings of Mongolians. Research limitations/implications – Future research should assess the impact of aspirations of young people on their labour market choices. Practical implications – The analysis shows that gender differences emerge in concomitance with women establishing a household and giving birth, suggesting that the current interventions to help mothers cope with maternity are insufficient. Changing this outcome is important to reach the Millennium Development Goals. Originality/value – Labour market issues in Mongolia are under-studied, not to mention gender differences in early career. This paper fills some of the gaps.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Emerald Group Publishing in its journal International Journal of Manpower.
Volume (Year): 31 (2010)
Issue (Month): 2 ( May)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.emeraldinsight.com
Postal: Emerald Group Publishing, Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley, BD16 1WA, UK
Other versions of this item:
- I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
- J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
- J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
- J62 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Job, Occupational and Intergenerational Mobility; Promotion
- P30 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - General
- R - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Filippin, Antonio & Ichino, Andrea, 2003.
"Gender Wage Gap in Expectations and Realizations,"
IZA Discussion Papers
825, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Alan Manning & Joanna Swaffield, 2008.
"The gender gap in early-career wage growth,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(530), pages 983-1024, 07.
- Alan Manning & Joanna Swaffield, 2005. "The gender gap in early career wage growth," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 19883, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Alan Manning & Joanna Swaffield, 2005. "The Gender Gap in Early Career Wage Growth," CEP Discussion Papers dp0700, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Francesco Pastore & Izabela Marcinkowska, 2004. "The Gender Wage Gap Among Young People in Italy," CELPE Discussion Papers 82, CELPE - Centre of Labour Economics and Economic Policy, University of Salerno, Italy.
- Francesco Pastore & Alina Verashchagina, 2011. "When does transition increase the gender wage gap?," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 19(2), pages 333-369, 04.
- Astrid KUNZE, 2003.
"Gender Differences in Entry Wages and Early Career Wages,"
Annales d'Economie et de Statistique,
ENSAE, issue 71-72, pages 245-265.
- Kunze, Astrid, 2002. "Gender Differences in Entry Wages and Early Career Wages," IZA Discussion Papers 626, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Juhn, Chinhui & Murphy, Kevin M & Pierce, Brooks, 1993. "Wage Inequality and the Rise in Returns to Skill," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(3), pages 410-42, June.
- Psacharopoulos, George, 1994.
"Returns to investment in education: A global update,"
Elsevier, vol. 22(9), pages 1325-1343, September.
- Psacharopoulos, George, 1993. "Returns to investment in education : a global update," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1067, The World Bank.
- Kunze, Astrid, 2005. "The evolution of the gender wage gap," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 73-97, February.
- Nopo, Hugo & Daza, Nancy & Ramos, Johanna, 2011. "Gender Earnings Gaps in the World," IZA Discussion Papers 5736, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Francesco Pastore & Sarosh Sattar & Erwin Tiongson, 2013.
"Gender differences in earnings and labor supply in early career: evidence from Kosovo’s school-to-work transition survey,"
IZA Journal of Labor & Development,
Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 1-34, December.
- Pastore, Francesco & Sattar, Sarosh & Tiongson, Erwin R., 2013. "Gender Differences in Earnings and Labor Supply in Early Career: Evidence from Kosovo's School-to-Work Transition Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 7461, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Prosper F. Bangwayo-Skeete & Precious Zikhali, 2011. "Social exclusion and labour market outcomes: evidence from Eastern Europe and Central Asia," International Journal of Development Issues, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 10(3), pages 233-250, September.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Virginia Chapman).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.