A causality analysis of the FDI-wages-productivity nexus in China
AbstractPurpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between foreign direct investment (FDI), wages and productivity in China. The direction of causality among these variables is also to be emphasized. Design/methodology/approach – The authors develop a system of equations and test the relationships based on a vector autoregressive regression (VAR) model and two-step generalized method of moments (GMM)-type estimation approach. They use a panel data set of China's provinces for a 20-year time period, 1988-2007, and also distinguish between the coastal and inland provinces. Findings – The result confirms the cheap labor argument for China, although this particularly true for inland provinces. In the coastal provinces, FDI inflow influences the wage rates upwards. FDI also has a positive effect on productivity, particularly in the coastal provinces, but does not act as a significant determinant of FDI. Research limitations/implications – Factors other than wage rates and labor productivity are also important determinants of FDI. This paper focuses on the interplay of these three variables, while assuming other factors constant. Practical implications – Cheap labor as an attraction of FDI is a short term policy. Improvements in productivity should be the focus both in the coastal and the inland provinces. A conducive business environment, a suitable education policy and incentives for greater R&D contribute toward improving labor productivity, which in turn attracts greater FDI inflow. Originality/value – The paper provides empirical evidence on the direction of causality between FDI inflow, wages rates and labor productivity in one system of equations.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Emerald Group Publishing in its journal Journal of Chinese Economic and Foreign Trade Studies.
Volume (Year): 3 (2010)
Issue (Month): 1 (February)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.emeraldinsight.com
Postal: Emerald Group Publishing, Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley, BD16 1WA, UK
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Wachtel, Paul, 2001. "Growth and Finance: What Do We Know and How Do We Know It?," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(3), pages 335-62, Winter.
- Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991.
"Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
- Tom Doan, . "RATS program to replicate Arellano-Bond 1991 dynamic panel," Statistical Software Components RTZ00169, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Cletus C. Coughlin & Eran Segev, 1999.
"Foreign direct investment in China: a spatial econometric study,"
1999-001, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- Cletus C. Coughlin & Eran Segev, 2000. "Foreign Direct Investment in China: A Spatial Econometric Study," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(1), pages 1-23, 01.
- Blomström, Magnus & Sjöholm, Fredrik, 1998.
"Technology, Transfer and Spillovers: Does Local Participation With Multinationals Matter?,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
2048, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Blomstrom, Magnus & Sjoholm, Fredrik, 1999. "Technology transfer and spillovers: Does local participation with multinationals matter?1," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(4-6), pages 915-923, April.
- Magnus Blomstrom & Fredrik Sjoholm, 1998. "Technology Transfer and Spillovers? Does Local Participation with Multinationals Matter?," NBER Working Papers 6816, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Blomström, Magnus & Sjöholm, Fredrik, 1998. "Technology Transfer and Spillovers: Does Local Participation with Multinationals Matter?," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 268, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Liu, Xiaming & Wang, Chengang & Wei, Yingqi, 2001. "Causal links between foreign direct investment and trade in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 190-202.
- Davies, Stephen W & Lyons, Bruce R, 1991. "Characterising Relative Performance: The Productivity Advantage of Foreign Owned Firms in the UK," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 43(4), pages 584-95, October.
- Chow, G.C., 1990.
"Capital Formation And Economic Growth In China,"
356, Princeton, Department of Economics - Econometric Research Program.
- Figini, Paolo & Görg, Holger, 1999.
"Multinational companies and wage inequality in the host country: the case of Ireland,"
Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy
2344, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
- Paolo Figini & Holger Görg, 1999. "Multinational companies and wage inequality in the host country: The case of Ireland," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 135(4), pages 594-612, December.
- Paolo Figini & Holger Görg, 1998. "Multinational Companies and Wage Inequality in the Host Country: The Case of Ireland," Economics Technical Papers 9816, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
- Fleisher, Belton M. & Wang, Xiaojun, 2001. "Efficiency Wages and Work Incentives in Urban and Rural China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 645-662, December.
- Bulent Unel & Harm Zebregs, 2009.
"The Dynamics of Provincial Growth in China: A Nonparametric Approach,"
IMF Staff Papers,
Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 56(2), pages 239-262, June.
- Bulent Unel & Harm Zebregs, . "The Dynamics of Provincial Growth in China: A Nonparametric Approach," Departmental Working Papers 2007-03, Department of Economics, Louisiana State University.
- Bulent Unel & Harm Zebregs, 2006. "The Dynamics of Provincial Growth in China: A Nonparametric Approach," IMF Working Papers 06/55, International Monetary Fund.
- Kostas Axarloglou, 2004. "Local labor market conditions and foreign direct investment flows in the U.S," Atlantic Economic Journal, International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 32(1), pages 62-66, March.
- Driffield, Nigel & Taylor, Karl, 2000. "FDI and the Labour Market: A Review of the Evidence and Policy Implications," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(3), pages 90-103, Autumn.
- Knight, John & Li, Shi, 2005. "Wages, firm profitability and labor market segmentation in urban China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 205-228.
- Taylor, Karl & Driffield, Nigel, 2005. "Wage inequality and the role of multinationals: evidence from UK panel data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 223-249, April.
- Chun-Chung Au & Vernon Henderson, 2002.
"How Migration Restrictions Limit Agglomeration and Productivity in China,"
NBER Working Papers
8707, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Au, Chun-Chung & Henderson, J. Vernon, 2006. "How migration restrictions limit agglomeration and productivity in China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 350-388, August.
- Girma, Sourafel & Greenaway, David & Wakelin, Katharine, 2001. "Who Benefits from Foreign Direct Investment in the UK?," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 48(2), pages 119-33, May.
- Ann E. Harrison & Brian J. Aitken, 1999. "Do Domestic Firms Benefit from Direct Foreign Investment? Evidence from Venezuela," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 605-618, June.
- Blomstrom, Magnus, 1986. "Foreign Investment and Productive Efficiency: The Case of Mexico," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(1), pages 97-110, September.
- Ruth A. Judson & Ann L. Owen, 1997. "Estimating dynamic panel data models: a practical guide for macroeconomists," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1997-3, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Cheng, Leonard K. & Kwan, Yum K., 2000. "What are the determinants of the location of foreign direct investment? The Chinese experience," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 379-400, August.
- Harry G. Broadman & Xiaolun Sun, 1997. "The Distribution of Foreign Direct Investment in China," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(3), pages 339-361, 05.
- Zhuang, Juzhong & Xu, Chenggang, 1996. " Profit-Sharing and Financial Performance in the Chinese State Enterprises: Evidence from Panel Data," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 205-22.
- Yang, Jeannie Yih Yun & Groenewold, Nicolaas & Tcha, Moonjoong, 2000. "The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment in Australia," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 76(232), pages 45-54, March.
- Chakrabarti, Avik, 2001. "The Determinants of Foreign Direct Investment: Sensitivity Analyses of Cross-Country Regressions," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(1), pages 89-113.
- Peter J Buckley & Jeremy Clegg & Chengqi Wang, 2002. "The Impact of Inward FDI on the Performance of Chinese Manufacturing Firms," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 33(4), pages 637-655, December.
- Driffield, Nigel, 2001. "The Impact of Domestic Productivity of Inward Investment in the UK," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 69(1), pages 103-19, January.
- Gordon H. HANSON, 2001. "Should Countries Promote Foreign Direct Investment?," G-24 Discussion Papers 9, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
- Jordaan, Jacob A., 2005. "Determinants of FDI-induced externalities: New empirical evidence for Mexican manufacturing industries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(12), pages 2103-2118, December.
- Kevin Honglin Zhang, 2001. "How does foreign direct investment affect economic growth in China?," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 9(3), pages 679-693, November.
- Culem, Claudy G., 1988. "The locational determinants of direct investments among industrialized countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 885-904, April.
- Zhang, Kevin Honglin & Song, Shunfeng, 2001. "Promoting exports: the role of inward FDI in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 385-396.
- Broadman, Harry G. & Xiaolun Sun, 1997. "The distribution of foreign direct investment in China," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1720, The World Bank.
- Li, Xiaoying & Liu, Xiaming & Parker, David, 2001. "Foreign direct investment and productivity spillovers in the Chinese manufacturing sector," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 305-321, December.
- Lucas, Robert E. B., 1993. "On the determinants of direct foreign investment: Evidence from East and Southeast Asia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 391-406, March.
- Zhao, Yaohui, 2001. "Foreign direct investment and relative wages: The case of China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 40-57.
- Krueger, Alan B & Summers, Lawrence H, 1988. "Efficiency Wages and the Inter-industry Wage Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(2), pages 259-93, March.
- Anwar, Sajid & Sun, Sizhong, 2012. "Trade liberalisation, market competition and wage inequality in China's manufacturing sector," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 1268-1277.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Harris).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.