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Inequality of Educational Opportunity in India: Changes Over Time and Across States

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  • Asadullah, M. Niaz
  • Yalonetzky, Gaston

Abstract

This paper documents the extent of inequality of educational opportunity in India spanning the period 1983–2004 using National Sample Surveys. We build on recent developments in the literature that have operationalized concepts of inequality of opportunity theory and construct several indices of inequality of educational opportunity for an adult sample. Kerala stands out as the least opportunity-unequal state. Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Uttar Pradesh experienced large-scale falls in the ranking of inequality of opportunities. By contrast, West Bengal and Orissa made significant progress in reducing inequality of opportunity. We also examine the links between progress toward equality of opportunity and a selection of pro-poor policies.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal World Development.

Volume (Year): 40 (2012)
Issue (Month): 6 ()
Pages: 1151-1163

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Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:40:y:2012:i:6:p:1151-1163

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev

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Keywords: religion; gender; caste; inequality of opportunity; South Asia; India;

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References

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  1. Checchi, Daniele & Peragine, Vito, 2005. "Regional Disparities and Inequality of Opportunity: The Case of Italy," IZA Discussion Papers 1874, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Jere Behrman R. & Alejandro Gavieria Uribe & Miguel Szekely Sánchez, 2001. "Intergenerational Mobility in Latin America," WORKING PAPERS SERIES. DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 002914, FEDESARROLLO.
  3. Ferreira , Francisco H. G. & Gignoux, Jeremie, 2008. "The measurement of inequality of opportunity : theory and an application to Latin America," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4659, The World Bank.
  4. Sen, Amartya, 2001. "Development as Freedom," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780192893307.
  5. Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 2007. "The progress of school education in India," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(2), pages 168-195, Summer.
  6. Lanjouw, Peter & Murgai, Rinku, 2009. "Poverty decline, agricultural wages, and non-farm employment in rural India : 1983-2004," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4858, The World Bank.
  7. Sonalde Desai & Veena Kulkarni, 2008. "Changing educational inequalities in india in the context of affirmative action," Demography, Springer, vol. 45(2), pages 245-270, May.
  8. Arnaud Lefranc & Nicolas Pistolesi & Alain Trannoy, 2008. "Inequality Of Opportunities Vs. Inequality Of Outcomes: Are Western Societies All Alike?," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 54(4), pages 513-546, December.
  9. Gaston Yalonetzky, 2012. "A dissimilarity index of multidimensional inequality of opportunity," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 343-373, September.
  10. Thomas, Vinod & Wang, Yan & Fan, Xibo, 2001. "Measuring education inequality - Gini coefficients of education," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2525, The World Bank.
  11. Dahan, Momi & Gaviria, Alejandro, 2001. "Sibling Correlations and Intergenerational Mobility in Latin America," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 49(3), pages 537-54, April.
  12. Gaston Yalonetzky, 2009. "Comparing Economic Mobility with Heterogeneity Indices: an Application to Education in Peru," OPHI Working Papers ophiwp033, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
  13. Gaston Yalonetzky, 2010. "A Dissimilarity Index of Multidimensional Inequality of Opportunity (Revised and Updated)," OPHI Working Papers ophiwp0039, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
  14. Ashwini Deshpande, 2007. "Overlapping Identities under Liberalization: Gender and Caste in India," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 55, pages 735-760.
  15. Fields, Gary S. & Ok, Efe A., 1996. "The Meaning and Measurement of Income Mobility," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 71(2), pages 349-377, November.
  16. Nazmul Chaudhury & Jeffrey Hammer & Michael Kremer & Karthik Muralidharan & F. Halsey Rogers, 2006. "Missing in Action: Teacher and Health Worker Absence in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(1), pages 91-116, Winter.
  17. Angus Deaton & Jean Dreze, 2002. "Poverty and Inequality in India: A Re-Examination," Working Papers 184, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies..
  18. Schütz, Gabriela & Ursprung, Heinrich W. & Wößmann, Ludger, 2008. "Education policy and equality of opportunity," Munich Reprints in Economics 19901, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  19. Leonardo C. Gasparini, 2002. "On the measurement of unfairness An application to high school attendance in Argentina," Social Choice and Welfare, Springer, vol. 19(4), pages 795-810.
  20. Foster, James E. & Shneyerov, Artyom A., 2000. "Path Independent Inequality Measures," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 199-222, April.
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  22. Sean Dougherty & Richard Herd, 2008. "Improving Human Capital Formation in India," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 625, OECD Publishing.
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Cited by:
  1. Motiram, Sripad & Singh, Ashish, 2012. "How Close Does the Apple Fall to the Tree? Some Evidence on Intergenerational Occupational Mobility from India," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  2. Ashish Singh, 2011. "Gender based intra-household inequality of opportunity in academic skills among Indian children," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 31(3), pages 2333-2346.
  3. Jean-François Carpantier & Christelle Sapata, 2013. "An Ex-Post View of Inequality of Opportunity in France and its Regions," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 281-311, September.
  4. Azam, Mehtabul & Bhatt, Vipul, 2012. "Like Father, Like Son? Intergenerational Education Mobility in India," IZA Discussion Papers 6549, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

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