Parental Education and Child Health—Understanding the Pathways of Impact in Pakistan
AbstractThis study investigates the relationship between parental schooling on the one hand, and child health outcomes (height and weight) and parental health-seeking behavior (immunization status of children), on the other. Using unique data from Pakistan, we aim to understand the mechanisms through which parental schooling promotes better child health and health-seeking behavior. The following “pathways” are investigated: educated parents’ greater household income, exposure to media, literacy, labor market participation, health knowledge, and the extent of maternal empowerment within the home. We find that while father’s education is positively associated with the immunization decision, mother’s education is more critically associated with longer term health outcomes in OLS equations. Instrumental Variable (IV) estimates suggest that father’s health knowledge is most positively associated with immunization decisions while mother’s health knowledge and her empowerment within the home are the channels through which her education impacts her child’s height and weight respectively.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal World Development.
Volume (Year): 40 (2012)
Issue (Month): 10 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev
parental schooling; mother’s health knowledge; father’s health knowledge; media exposure; maternal empowerment; child health; Pakistan; South Asia;
Other versions of this item:
- Monasa Aslam & Geeta Kingdon, 2010. "Parental Education and Child Health - Understanding the Pathways of Impact in Pakistan," Economics Series Working Papers CSAE WPS/2010-16, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Monazza Aslam & Geeta Kingdon, 2010. "Parental Education and Child Health - Understanding the Pathways of Impact in Pakistan," CSAE Working Paper Series 2010-16, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Thomas, D. & Strauss, J., 1990.
"Prices, Infrastructure, Household Charasteristics And Child Height,"
602, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Thomas, Duncan & Strauss, John, 1992. "Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 301-331, October.
- Handa, Sudhanshu, 1999. "Maternal Education and Child Height," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 47(2), pages 421-39, January.
- Alderman, Harold & Garcia, Marito, 1994. "Food Security and Health Security: Explaining the Levels of Nutritional Status in Pakistan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 42(3), pages 485-507, April.
- Anne Case & Angela Fertig & Christina Paxson, 2004.
"The Lasting Impact of Childhood Health and Circumstance,"
246, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Health and Wellbeing..
- Case, Anne & Fertig, Angela & Paxson, Christina, 2005. "The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 365-389, March.
- Lucia Breierova & Esther Duflo, 2004.
"The Impact of Education on Fertility and Child Mortality: Do Fathers Really Matter Less Than Mothers?,"
NBER Working Papers
10513, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Lucia Breierova & Esther Duflo, 2003. "The Impact of Education on Fertility and Child Mortality: Do Fathers Really Matter Less Than Mothers?," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 217, OECD Publishing.
- Barrera, Albino, 1990. "The role of maternal schooling and its interaction with public health programs in child health production," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 69-91, January.
- Paul Glewwe, 1999. "Why Does Mother's Schooling Raise Child Health in Developing Countries? Evidence from Morocco," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 34(1), pages 124-159.
- Flavio Cunha & James J. Heckman, 2008. "Formulating, Identifying and Estimating the Technology of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skill Formation," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(4).
- Phil Oreopoulos & Mark Stabile & Randy Walld & Leslie Roos, 2006.
"Short, Medium, and Long Term Consequences of Poor Infant Health: An Analysis using Siblings and Twins,"
NBER Working Papers
11998, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Philip Oreopoulos & Mark Stabile & Randy Walld & Leslie L. Roos, 2008. "Short-, Medium-, and Long-Term Consequences of Poor Infant Health: An Analysis Using Siblings and Twins," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(1).
- Behrman, Jere R. & Wolfe, Barbara L., 1987. "How does mother's schooling affect family health, nutrition, medical care usage, and household sanitation?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1-2), pages 185-204.
- David Card, 2000.
"Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problems,"
NBER Working Papers
7769, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Card, David, 2001. "Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(5), pages 1127-60, September.
- Gibson, John, 2001. "Literacy and Intrahousehold Externalities," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 155-166, January.
- Janet Currie & Brigitte C. Madrian, 1998.
"Health, Health Insurance and the Labor Market,"
JCPR Working Papers
27, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
- Monazza Aslam, 2009. "The relative effectiveness of government and private schools in Pakistan: are girls worse off?," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 329-354.
- Thomas, Duncan & Strauss, John & Henriques, Maria-Helena, 1990. "Child survival, height for age and household characteristics in Brazil," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 197-234, October.
- Anne Case & Angela Fertig & Christina Paxson, 2003. "From Cradle to Grave? The Lasting Impact of Childhood Health and Circumstance," NBER Working Papers 9788, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Chen, Yuyu & Li, Hongbin, 2009.
"Mother's education and child health: Is there a nurturing effect?,"
Journal of Health Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 413-426, March.
- Yuyu Chen & Hongbin Li, 2006. "Mother's Education and Child Health: Is There a Nurturing Effect?," Discussion Papers 00021, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Economics.
- Sonalde Desai & Soumya Alva, 1998. "Maternal education and child health: Is there a strong causal relationship?," Demography, Springer, vol. 35(1), pages 71-81, February.
- Harold Alderman & Jere R. Behrman & Victor Lavy & Rekha Menon, 2001. "Child Health and School Enrollment: A Longitudinal Analysis," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 36(1), pages 185-205.
- Steven A. Block, 2007. "Maternal nutrition knowledge versus schooling as determinants of child micronutrient status," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 59(2), pages 330-353, April.
- Grossman, Michael, 2006.
"Education and Nonmarket Outcomes,"
Handbook of the Economics of Education,
- G. M. Arif, 2004. "Child Health and Poverty in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 43(3), pages 211-238.
- Wolfe, Barbara L. & Behrman, Jere R., 1987. "Women's schooling and children's health : Are the effects robust with adult sibling control for the women's childhood background?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 239-254, September.
- World Bank, 2002. "Poverty Assessment : Poverty in Pakistan - Vulnerabilities, Social Caps, and Rural Dynamics," World Bank Other Operational Studies 15335, The World Bank.
- Monazza Aslam, 2009. "Education Gender Gaps in Pakistan: Is the Labor Market to Blame?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(4), pages 747-784, 07.
- Christiaensen, Luc & Alderman, Harold, 2004. "Child Malnutrition in Ethiopia: Can Maternal Knowledge Augment the Role of Income?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 52(2), pages 287-312, January.
- Behrman, Jere R. & Deolalikar, Anil B., 1988. "Health and nutrition," Handbook of Development Economics, in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 14, pages 631-711 Elsevier.
- Strauss, John, 1990. "Households, Communities, and Preschool Children's Nutrition Outcomes: Evidence from Rural Cote d'Ivoire," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(2), pages 231-61, January.
- VAN DE GAER, Dirk & VANDENBOSSCHE, Joost & FIGUEROA, José Luis, 2012.
"Children’s health opportunities and project evaluation: Mexico’s Oportunidades program,"
CORE Discussion Papers
2012015, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Van de gaer, Dirk & Vandenbossche, Joost & Figueroa, Jose Luis, 2013. "Children's health opportunities and project evaluation : Mexico's Oportunidades program," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6345, The World Bank.
- D. Van De Gaer & J. Vandenbossche & J. L. Figueroa, 2011. "Children’s health opportunities and project evaluation: Mexico’s Oportunidades program," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 11/749, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
- Ana Maria Osorio & Catalina Bolancé & Nyovane Madise & Katharina Rathmann, 2013. "Social Determinants of Child Health in Colombia: Can Community Education Moderate the Effect of Family Characteristics?," Working Papers XREAP2013-02, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Mar 2013.
- Francesco Burchi, 2012. "Whose education affects a childâ€™s nutritional status? From parents' to household's education," Demographic Research, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 27(23), pages 681-704, November.
- Bhagowalia, Priya & Menon, Purnima & Quisumbing, Agnes R. & Soundararajan, Vidhya, 2012. "What Dimensions of Womenâ€™s Empowerment Matter Most for Child Nutrition? Evidence Using Nationally Representative Data from Bangladesh:," IFPRI discussion papers 1192, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.