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Kenyan Supermarkets, Emerging Middle-Class Horticultural Farmers, and Employment Impacts on the Rural Poor

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Author Info

  • Neven, David
  • Odera, Michael Makokha
  • Reardon, Thomas
  • Wang, Honglin

Abstract

Summary Are the rural poor excluded from supermarket channels in developing countries? We analyzed the farm-level impact of supermarket growth on Kenya's horticulture sector, which is dominated by smallholders. The analysis reveals a threshold capital vector for entrance in the supermarket channel, which hinders small, rainfed farms. Most of the growers participating as direct suppliers to that channel are a new group of medium-sized, fast-growing commercial farms managed by well-educated farmers and focused on the domestic supermarket market. Their heavy reliance on hired workers benefits small farmers via the labor market.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal World Development.

Volume (Year): 37 (2009)
Issue (Month): 11 (November)
Pages: 1802-1811

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Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:37:y:2009:i:11:p:1802-1811

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev

Related research

Keywords: Kenya supermarkets horticulture farmers markets rural development supply chains rural employment;

References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Rao, Elizaphan J.O. & Qaim, Matin, 2011. "The supermarket revolution and impacts on agricultural labor markets: Empirical evidence from Kenya," Discussion Papers 107745, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
  2. Rao, Elizaphan J.O. & Qaim, Matin, 2010. "Supermarkets, farm household income and poverty: Insights from Kenya," 2010 AAAE Third Conference/AEASA 48th Conference, September 19-23, 2010, Cape Town, South Africa 95771, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE) & Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA).
  3. Ehlert, Christoph R. & Mithöfer, Dagmar & Waibel, Hermann, 2014. "Worker welfare on Kenyan export vegetable farms," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 66-73.
  4. Brummett, Randall E. & Gockowski, James & Pouomogne, Victor & Muir, James, 2011. "Targeting agricultural research and extension for food security and poverty alleviation: A case study of fish farming in Central Cameroon," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 805-814.
  5. Rao, Elizaphan J.O. & Qaim, Matin, 2013. "Supermarkets and agricultural labor demand in Kenya: A gendered perspective," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 165-176.
  6. Zhang, Chuanchuan, 2011. "大型外资零售商的进入对中国地区劳动力市场的影响
    [Impact of Entry of Large Foreign Retailers on Local Labor Markets in China]
    ," MPRA Paper 43912, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Apr 2012.
  7. Hansen, Henrik & Trifković, Neda, 2014. "Food Standards are Good – For Middle-Class Farmers," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 226-242.
  8. Andersson, Camilla I.M. & Kiria, Christine G. & Qaim, Matin & Rao, Elizaphan J.O., 2013. "Following up on smallholder farmers and supermarkets," Discussion Papers 158142, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
  9. Gorton, Matthew & Sauer, Johannes & Supatpongkul, Pajaree, 2011. "Wet Markets, Supermarkets and the "Big Middle" for Food Retailing in Developing Countries: Evidence from Thailand," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 1624-1637, September.
  10. Hernandez, Ricardo & Reardon, Thomas, 2012. "Tomato Farmers and Modern Markets in Nicaragua: a Duration Analysis," 2012 Annual Meeting, August 12-14, 2012, Seattle, Washington 124587, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  11. Chiputwa, Brian & Qaim, Matin & Spielman, David J., 2013. "Food Standards, Certification, and Poverty among Coffee Farmers in Uganda," Discussion Papers 161565, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
  12. Schipmann, Christin & Qaim, Matin, 2011. "Supply chain differentiation, contract agriculture, and farmers’ marketing preferences: the case of sweet pepper in Thailand," Discussion Papers 108349, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
  13. Han-Hsin Chang & Charles van Marrewijk & Randy Stringer & Wendy Umberger, 2013. "Investment, awareness, supermarkets, and profits: heterogeneous chili farmers in Indonesia," Working Papers 13-13, Utrecht School of Economics.
  14. Rao, Elizaphan J.O. & Brummer, Bernhard & Qaim, Matin, 2011. "Farmer Participation in Supermarket Channels, Production Technology, and Efficiency: The Case of Vegetables in Kenya," Discussion Papers 113508, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
  15. Rao, Elizaphan J.O. & Qaim, Matin, 2011. "Supermarkets, Farm Household Income, and Poverty: Insights from Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 784-796, May.
  16. Fischer, Elisabeth & Qaim, Matin, 2012. "Linking Smallholders to Markets: Determinants and Impacts of Farmer Collective Action in Kenya," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1255-1268.
  17. Handschuch, Christina & Wollni, Meike & Villalobos, Pablo, 2013. "Adoption of food safety and quality standards among Chilean raspberry producers – Do smallholders benefit?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 64-73.

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