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Travel choices in pedestrian versus automobile oriented neighborhoods

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  • Cervero, Robert
  • Radisch, Carolyn
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    Abstract

    The New Urbanism movement calls for redesigning American neighborhoods so that they are less oriented toward automobile travel and more conducive to walking, bicycling and transit riding, especially for non-work trips. New Urbanism calls for a return to compact neighborhoods with grid-like street patterns, mixed land uses and pedestrian amenities. This paper investigates the effects of New Urbanism design principles on both non-work and commuting travel by comparing modal splits between two distinctly different neighborhoods in the San Francisco Bay Area. The neo-traditional neighborhood, Rockridge, and the nearby conventional suburban community, Lafayette, were chosen as case sites because they have similar income profiles, freeway and transit service levels, and geographical locations. Rockridge residents averaged around a 10 percentage point higher share of non-work trips by non-automobile modes than did residents of Lafayette, controlling for relevant factors like income and transit service levels. The greatest differences were for shop trips under one mile. Rockridge residents also averaged substantially higher rates of non-work walk trips per day, matched by lower rates of daily auto travel, suggesting that walking substitutes for motorized travel, at the margin. Modal splits were more similar for work trips, confirming the proposition that neighborhood design practices exert their greatest influence on local shopping trips and other non-work purposes. For work trips, compact, mixed-use, and pedestrian-oriented development appears to have the strongest effect on access trips to rail stations, in particular inducing higher shares of access trips by foot and bicycle.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Transport Policy.

    Volume (Year): 3 (1996)
    Issue (Month): 3 (July)
    Pages: 127-141

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:trapol:v:3:y:1996:i:3:p:127-141

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    References

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    1. Cervero, Robert, 1996. "Mixed land-uses and commuting: Evidence from the American Housing Survey," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 361-377, September.
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    Cited by:
    1. Bagley, Michael N, 1999. "Incorporating Residential Choice into Travel Behavior-Land Use Interaction Research: A Conceptual Model with Methodologies for Investigating Causal Relationships," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2ws1x83f, University of California Transportation Center.
    2. Greene-Roesel, Ryan & Diogenes, Mara Chagas & Ragland, David R, 2007. "Estimating Pedestrian Accident Exposure: Approaches to a Statewide Pedestrian Exposure Database," Institute of Transportation Studies, Research Reports, Working Papers, Proceedings, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley qt05g9s4m5, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Berkeley.
    3. Cervero, Robert & Duncan, Michael, 2006. "Balanced Growth, Travel Demand, and Physical Activity," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt5c95t59t, University of California Transportation Center.
    4. Bradley Lane, 2011. "TAZ-level variation in work trip mode choice between 1990 and 2000 and the presence of rail transit," Journal of Geographical Systems, Springer, Springer, vol. 13(2), pages 147-171, June.
    5. Alfonzo, Mariela & Boarnet, Marlon & Day, Kristen & McMillan, Tracy & Anderson, Craig L., 2006. "The Relationship of Neighborhood Built Environment Features and Walking," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt8fh1x4h3, University of California Transportation Center.
    6. Alva González, Miguel Ángel, 2008. "Environmentally Unfriendly Consumption Behaviour: Theoretical and Empirical Evidence from Private Motorists in Mexico City," MPRA Paper 18019, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Sallis, James F. & Frank, Lawrence D. & Saelens, Brian E. & Kraft, M. Katherine, 2004. "Active transportation and physical activity: opportunities for collaboration on transportation and public health research," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 249-268, May.
    8. Salon, Deborah, 2006. "Cars and the City: An Investigation of Transportation and Residential Location Choices in New York City," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1br223vz, University of California Transportation Center.
    9. Cao, XinYu, 2007. "The Causal Relationship between the Built Environment and Personal Travel Choice: Evidence from Northern California," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis qt1n90z8h8, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
    10. Bodea, Tudor D. & Garrow, Laurie A. & Meyer, Michael D. & Ross, Catherine L., 2009. "Socio-demographic and built environment influences on the odds of being overweight or obese: The Atlanta experience," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 430-444, May.
    11. Cao, Xinyu, 2006. "The Causal Relationship between the Built Environment and Personal Travel Choice: Evidence from Northern California," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt07q5p340, University of California Transportation Center.
    12. Jacques, Cynthia & Ahmed M. El-Geneidy, Ahmed M. El-Geneidy, 2014. "Does travel behavior matter in defining urban form? A quantitative analysis characterizing distinct areas within a region," The Journal of Transport and Land Use, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota, Center for Transportation Studies, University of Minnesota, vol. 7(1), pages 1-14.
    13. McDonald, Noreen C., 2005. "Children’s Travel: Patterns and Influences," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt51c9m01c, University of California Transportation Center.
    14. Krumdieck, Susan & Page, Shannon & Dantas, André, 2010. "Urban form and long-term fuel supply decline: A method to investigate the peak oil risks to essential activities," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 44(5), pages 306-322, June.
    15. Pitombo, C.S. & Kawamoto, E. & Sousa, A.J., 2011. "An exploratory analysis of relationships between socioeconomic, land use, activity participation variables and travel patterns," Transport Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 347-357, March.
    16. Metin Senbil & Ryuichi Kitamura & Jamilah Mohamad, 2009. "Residential location, vehicle ownership and travel in Asia: a comparative analysis of Kei-Han-Shin and Kuala Lumpur metropolitan areas," Transportation, Springer, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 325-350, May.
    17. Hankey, Steve & Marshall, Julian D., 2010. "Impacts of urban form on future US passenger-vehicle greenhouse gas emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 38(9), pages 4880-4887, September.
    18. Cao, Xinyu (Jason) & Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Handy, Susan L., 2009. "The relationship between the built environment and nonwork travel: A case study of Northern California," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 548-559, June.
    19. Carlos Carrion & Nebiyou Tilahun & David Levinson, 2011. "Effects of Mode Shares on Mode Choice," Working Papers, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group 000093, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
    20. Pavithra Parthasarathi & Hartwig Hochmair & David Levinson, 2009. "The Influence of Network Structure on Travel Distance," Working Papers, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group 000069, University of Minnesota: Nexus Research Group.
    21. Estupiñán, Nicolás & Rodri­guez, Daniel A., 2008. "The relationship between urban form and station boardings for Bogotá's BRT," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 296-306, February.
    22. Schwanen, Tim & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 2005. "What Affects Commute Mode Choice: Neighborhood Physical Structure or Preferences Toward Neighborhoods?," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt4nq9r1c9, University of California Transportation Center.
    23. Cervero, Robert & Duncan, Michael, 2008. "Which Reduces Vehicle Travel More: Jobs-Housing Balauce or Retail-Housing Mixing?," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt1s110395, University of California Transportation Center.

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