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Estimating the willingness to pay and value of risk reduction for car occupants in the road environment

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  • Hensher, David A.
  • Rose, John M.
  • Ortúzar, Juan de Dios
  • Rizzi, Luis I.
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    Abstract

    In recent years there has been a re-focus on the valuation of a statistical life from the ex post or human capital method to an ex ante willingness to pay (WTP) approach. This is in part a recognition that we may have been undervaluing the cost of fatalities and injuries to society associated with crashes, but also a strong belief in the need to focus on establishing the amount, ex ante, that individuals are willing to pay to reduce the risk of exposure to circumstances that might lead to death or degree of injury on the road network. This study has developed a framework in which to identify the degree of preference heterogeneity in willingness to pay by individuals who are drivers or passengers in cars to avoid being killed or injured. A stated choice experiment approach is developed. The empirical setting is a choice of route for a particular trip that a sample of individuals periodically undertakes in Australia. The particular trip is described in enough detail to provide the respondent with a familiar market environment, providing all the relevant background information required for making a decision. Mixed logit models are estimated to obtain the marginal (dis)utilities associated with each influence on the choice amongst the attribute packages offered in the stated choice scenarios. These estimates are used to obtain the WTP distributions for fatality and injury avoidance, which are then aggregated to obtain estimates of the value of risk reduction (VRR), of which the fatality class is also known as the value of a statistical life (VSL).

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice.

    Volume (Year): 43 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 7 (August)
    Pages: 692-707

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:transa:v:43:y:2009:i:7:p:692-707

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    Related research

    Keywords: Value of statistical life Value of risk reduction Car drivers Fatalities Injuries Willingness to pay Stated choice;

    References

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    1. Beattie, Jane, et al, 1998. "On the Contingent Valuation of Safety and the Safety of Contingent Valuation: Part 1--Caveat Investigator," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 5-25, October.
    2. Gaudry, Marc J. I. & Jara-Diaz, Sergio R. & Ortuzar, Juan de Dios, 1989. "Value of time sensitivity to model specification," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 151-158, April.
    3. Orley Ashenfelter, 2005. "Measuring the Value of a Statistical Life: Problems and Prospects," Working Papers 884, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    4. Peter A. Diamond & Jerry A. Hausman, 1994. "Contingent Valuation: Is Some Number Better than No Number?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(4), pages 45-64, Fall.
    5. Ferrini, Silvia & Scarpa, Riccardo, 2007. "Designs with a priori information for nonmarket valuation with choice experiments: A Monte Carlo study," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 342-363, May.
    6. Mauricio Sillano & Juan de Dios Ort�zar, 2005. "Willingness-to-pay estimation with mixed logit models: some new evidence," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 37(3), pages 525-550, March.
    7. Kenneth Train, 2003. "Discrete Choice Methods with Simulation," Online economics textbooks, SUNY-Oswego, Department of Economics, SUNY-Oswego, Department of Economics, number emetr2, Spring.
    8. Kip Viscusi, W. & Magat, Wesley A. & Huber, Joel, 1991. "Pricing environmental health risks: survey assessments of risk-risk and risk-dollar trade-offs for chronic bronchitis," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 32-51, July.
    9. Zsolt Sándor & Michel Wedel, 2002. "Profile Construction in Experimental Choice Designs for Mixed Logit Models," Marketing Science, INFORMS, INFORMS, vol. 21(4), pages 455-475, February.
    10. Carthy, Trevor, et al, 1998. "On the Contingent Valuation of Safety and the Safety of Contingent Valuation: Part 2--The CV/SG "Chained" Approach," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 187-213, December.
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    Cited by:
    1. Henrik Andersson & Arne Risa Hole & Mikael Svensson, 2014. "Valuation of Small and Multiple Health Risks: A Critical Analysis of SP Data Applied to Food and Water Safety," Working Papers 2014005, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics.
    2. Tanara Rosângela Vieira Sousa & Sabino Da Silva Pôrto Junior & João António Pereira & Flávio Pechansky & Paulina Do Carmo Arruda Vieira Duarte & Raquel De Boni, 2011. "Disposição A Pagar Pela Redução Do Riscode Mortalidade Associada A Acidentes De Trânsito E O Valor De Uma Vidaestatística," Anais do XXXVIII Encontro Nacional de Economia [Proceedings of the 38th Brazilian Economics Meeting], ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of 078, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pósgraduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics].
    3. Veisten, Knut & Flügel, Stefan & Rizzi, Luis I. & Ortúzar, Juan de Dios & Elvik, Rune, 2013. "Valuing casualty risk reductions from estimated baseline risk," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 50-61.
    4. Bliemer, Michiel C.J. & Rose, John M., 2011. "Experimental design influences on stated choice outputs: An empirical study in air travel choice," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 63-79, January.

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