Polarization patterns in economic development and innovation
AbstractThis paper examines the polarization of economic development in African economies. Based on nonparametric and bipolarization frameworks, we find that countries tend to cluster in two classes, and that bipolarization has been accelerating over the period 1966–2008. We relate the evolution of income bipolarization to specialization in a country. The main sectors that tend to reduce income bipolarization are mining and services. We also study the effects of innovation on income polarization. In particular, we analyze short-run and long-run effects of innovation and their inter-relationship with income polarization. We show that the impact of innovation differs depending on its origin and its type. If innovation is resident, then trademarks outweigh patents. On the contrary, if the origin of innovation is non resident, then patents have a greater effect. Moreover, there is an adjustment process between trademarks residents and patents residents. In the short-run, when trademarks residents are too high, they quickly fall back toward patents residents level. We do not observe such adjustments between trademarks non residents and patents non residents. Last, unexpected shocks that affect patents (res. trademarks) have a permanent (res. transitory) effects on income polarization.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Structural Change and Economic Dynamics.
Volume (Year): 23 (2012)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/525148
Income polarization; Patents; Trademarks;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
- O15 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
- O34 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Intellectual Property and Intellectual Capital
- O47 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Measurement of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Zhang, Siao-Bo & Kanbur, Ravi, 1999.
"What Difference Do Polarization Measures Make? An Application To China,"
7224, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
- X. Zhang & R. Kanbur, 2001. "What Difference Do Polarisation Measures Make? An Application to China," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(3), pages 85-98.
- Danny Quah, 1992.
"Empirical Cross-Section Dynamics in Economic Growth,"
FMG Discussion Papers
dp154, Financial Markets Group.
- Quah, Danny, 1993. "Empirical cross-section dynamics in economic growth," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 426-434, April.
- Danny Quah, 1992. "Empirical cross-section dynamics in economic growth," Discussion Paper / Institute for Empirical Macroeconomics 75, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
- Magrini, Stefano, 2004. "Regional (di)convergence," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 62, pages 2741-2796 Elsevier.
- repec:cup:cbooks:9780521805247 is not listed on IDEAS
- Esteban, Joan & Ray, Debraj, 1994.
"On the Measurement of Polarization,"
Econometric Society, vol. 62(4), pages 819-51, July.
- Joan-Maria Esteban & Debraj Ray, 1991. "On the Measurement of Polarization," Boston University - Institute for Economic Development 18, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
- Esteban, J. & Ray, D., 1993. "On the Measurement of Polarization," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 221.93, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Esteban, J.M. & Ray, D., 1992. "On the Measurement of Polarization," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 171.92, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Jan Fagerberg & Martin Srholec & Bart Verspagen, 2010. "The Role of Innovation in Development," Review of Economics and Institutions, Università di Perugia, vol. 1(2).
- Barro, R.J. & Sala-I-Martin, X., 1991.
"Convergence Across States and Regions,"
629, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Barro, Robert J & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992. "Convergence," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(2), pages 223-51, April.
- Robert J. Barro & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 1991. "Convergence across States and Regions," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 22(1), pages 107-182.
- Durlauf, S.M. & Johnson, P.A., 1995.
"Multiple Regimes and Cross-Country Growth Behavior,"
9419r, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Durlauf, Steven N & Johnson, Paul A, 1995. "Multiple Regimes and Cross-Country Growth Behaviour," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(4), pages 365-84, Oct.-Dec..
- Quah, Danny T., 1996. "Empirics for economic growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1353-1375, June.
- Gabriele Tondl & Harald Badinger & Werner Müller, 2003.
"Regional convergence in the European Union (1985-1999). A spatial dynamic panel analysis,"
ERSA conference papers
ersa03p455, European Regional Science Association.
- Harald Badinger & Werner Muller & Gabriele Tondl, 2004. "Regional Convergence in the European Union, 1985- 1999: A Spatial Dynamic Panel Analysis," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(3), pages 241-253.
- Badinger, Harald & Müller, Werner G. & Tondl, Gabriele, 2002. "Regional convergence in the European Union (1985 - 1999) : a spatial dynamic panel analysis," HWWA Discussion Papers 210, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWA).
- Seshanna, Shubhasree & Decornez, Stephane, 2003. "Income polarization and inequality across countries: an empirical study," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 335-358, June.
- Rachel Griffith & Stephen Redding & John Van Reenen, 2000.
"Mapping the two faces of R&D : productivity growth in a panel of OECD industries,"
LSE Research Online Documents on Economics
784, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Rachel Griffith & Stephen Redding & John Van Reenen, 2004. "Mapping the Two Faces of R&D: Productivity Growth in a Panel of OECD Industries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(4), pages 883-895, November.
- Rachel Griffith & Stephen Redding & John Van Reenen, 2000. "Mapping the Two Faces of R&D: Productivity Growth in a Panel of OECD Industries," CEP Discussion Papers dp0458, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Griffith, Rachel & Redding, Stephen J & Van Reenen, John, 2000. "Mapping The Two Faces Of R&D: Productivity Growth In A Panel Of OECD Industries," CEPR Discussion Papers 2457, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Rachel Griffith & Stephen Redding & John Van Reenen, 2000. "Mapping the two faces of R&D: productivity growth in a panel of OECD industries," IFS Working Papers W00/02, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
- Theophile Azomahou & Thi Kim Cuong Pham & Phu Nguyen Van & Jalal El Ouardighi, 2005. "Income distribution dynamics across European regions," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 15(12), pages 1-9.
- Paul M Romer, 1999.
"Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
2232, David K. Levine.
- Paul Makdissi & Thierry Roy & Luc Savard, 2008.
"An ethnic polarization measure with an application to Ivory Coast data,"
0806E, University of Ottawa, Department of Economics.
- Paul Makdissi & Thierry Roy & Luc Savard, 2008. "An ethnic polarization measure with an application to Ivory Coast data," Cahiers de recherche 08-06, Departement d'Economique de la Faculte d'administration à l'Universite de Sherbrooke.
- Bernard, A.B. & Durlauf, S.N., 1993.
"Convergence in International Output,"
93-7, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Bruno Van Pottelsberghe & Dominique Guellec, 2007.
"The economics of the European patent system: IP policy for innovation and competition,"
ULB Institutional Repository
2013/6183, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Guellec, Dominique & van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno, 2007. "The Economics of the European Patent System: IP Policy for Innovation and Competition," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199216987, September.
- Whitney K. Newey & Kenneth D. West, 1986.
"A Simple, Positive Semi-Definite, Heteroskedasticity and AutocorrelationConsistent Covariance Matrix,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0055, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Newey, Whitney K & West, Kenneth D, 1987. "A Simple, Positive Semi-definite, Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(3), pages 703-08, May.
- Newey, Whitney & West, Kenneth, 2014. "A simple, positive semi-definite, heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation consistent covariance matrix," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 33(1), pages 125-132.
- Jon Miller & Ismail Genc, 2005. "Alternative regional specification and convergence of U.S. regional growth rates," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 241-252, 06.
- Mendonca, Sandro & Pereira, Tiago Santos & Godinho, Manuel Mira, 2004.
"Trademarks as an indicator of innovation and industrial change,"
Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1385-1404, November.
- Sandro Mendonça & Tiago Santos Pereira & Manuel Mira Godinho, 2004. "Trademarks as an Indicator of Innovation and Industrial Change," LEM Papers Series 2004/15, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
- Ravallion, Martin & Shaohua Chen, 1996.
"What can new survey data tell us about recent changes in distribution and poverty?,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1694, The World Bank.
- Ravallion, Martin & Chen, Shaohua, 1997. "What Can New Survey Data Tell Us about Recent Changes in Distribution and Poverty?," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(2), pages 357-82, May.
- Danny Quah, 1996. "Twin Peaks: Growth and Convergence in Models of Distribution Dynamics," CEP Discussion Papers dp0280, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Alberto Alesina & Enrico Spolaore, 1995.
"On the Number and Size of Nations,"
NBER Working Papers
5050, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Johnson, Paul A., 2000.
"A nonparametric analysis of income convergence across the US states,"
Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 219-223, November.
- Johnson, Paul, 1999. "A Nonparametric Analysis of Income Convergence Across the US States," Vassar College Department of Economics Working Paper Series 46, Vassar College Department of Economics.
- Ulrich Schmoch, 2003. "Service marks as novel innovation indicator," Research Evaluation, Oxford University Press, vol. 12(2), pages 149-156, August.
- Duclos, Jean-Yves & Esteban, Joan & Ray, Debraj, 2003.
"Polarization: Concepts, Measurement, Estimation,"
Cahiers de recherche
- Wolfson, Michael C, 1994. "When Inequalities Diverge," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 353-58, May.
- Johansen, Soren, 1995. "Likelihood-Based Inference in Cointegrated Vector Autoregressive Models," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198774501, September.
- Wang, You-Qiang & Tsui, Kai-Yuen, 2000. " Polarization Orderings and New Classes of Polarization Indices," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 2(3), pages 349-63.
- Baroncelli, Eugenia & Krivonos, Ekaterina & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2004.
"Trademark protection or protectionism?,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
3214, The World Bank.
- Rujas, Javier, 1999. "Trade marks: complementary to patents," World Patent Information, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 35-39, March.
- Chen, Yongmin & Puttitanun, Thitima, 2005. "Intellectual property rights and innovation in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 474-493, December.
- Romer, Paul M, 1987. "Growth Based on Increasing Returns Due to Specialization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(2), pages 56-62, May.
- Galor, Oded, 1996.
"Convergence? Inferences from Theoretical Models,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 1056-69, July.
- Quah, Danny T, 1997. " Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 27-59, March.
- repec:ebl:ecbull:v:15:y:2005:i:12:p:1-9 is not listed on IDEAS
- : Christian Schultz, .
"Polarization and Inefficient Policies,"
93-16, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
- D'Ambrosio, Conchita, 2001. "Household Characteristics and the Distribution of Income in Italy: An Application of Social Distance Measures," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 47(1), pages 43-64, March.
- Gene M. Grossman & Elhanan Helpman, 1993.
"Endogenous Innovation in the Theory of Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
4527, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Enrique Lopez-Bazo & Bernard Fingleton, 2003. "Explaining the distribution of manufacturing productivity in the EU regions," ERSA conference papers ersa03p197, European Regional Science Association.
- Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-85, December.
- Antonio J. Mora & Esther Vayá & Jordi Suriñach & Enrique López-Bazo, 1999. "original: Regional economic dynamics and convergence in the European Union," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 343-370.
- Anderson, Gordon, 2004. "Toward an empirical analysis of polarization," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 122(1), pages 1-26, September.
- Quah, Danny T, 1996.
"Twin Peaks: Growth and Convergence in Models of Distribution Dynamics,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 1045-55, July.
- Quah, Danny, 1996. "Twin Peaks: Growth and Convergence in Models of Distribution Dynamics," CEPR Discussion Papers 1355, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Walter G. Park & Juan Carlos Ginarte, 1997. "Intellectual Property Rights And Economic Growth," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 15(3), pages 51-61, 07.
- Carsten Fink & Beata Smarzynska Javorcik & Mariana Spatareanu, 2005.
"Income-Related Biases in International Trade: What Do Trademark Registration Data Tell Us?,"
Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv),
Springer, vol. 141(1), pages 79-103, April.
- Carsten Fink & Javorcik,Beata & Mariana Spatareanu, 2003. "Income-related biases in international trade : what do trademark registration data tell us?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3150, The World Bank.
- Andrew B. Bernard & Steven N. Durlauf, 1994.
"Interpreting Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0159, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Chakravarty, Satya R & Majumder, Amita, 2001. "Inequality, Polarisation and Welfare: Theory and Applications," Australian Economic Papers, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 1-13, March.
- repec:cup:cbooks:9780521801386 is not listed on IDEAS
- Chudnovsky, Daniel, 1979. "Foreign trademarks in developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 7(7), pages 663-682, July.
- Valentina Meliciani, 2006. "Income and employment disparities across European regions: The role of national and spatial factors," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(1), pages 75-91.
- Quah, Danny, 1997. "Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," CEPR Discussion Papers 1586, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Greer, Douglas F., 1979. "The economic benefits and costs of trademarks: Lessons for the developing countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 7(7), pages 683-704, July.
- Paul Krugman, 1990.
"Increasing Returns and Economic Geography,"
NBER Working Papers
3275, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.