Effective Public Service Advertisements to Attract Volunteers for the Special Olympics: An Elaboration Likelihood Perspective
AbstractAs many sport organisations are frequently in great need of volunteers, it is important for sport marketers to develop effective public service advertisements (PSAs) to attract volunteers. The purpose of this study was to expand and test a theory of persuasion for PSAs designed to lead people to help with the Special Olympics. More specifically, this study was designed to broaden the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) by incorporating a newly added personality variable, empathic tendency, and to show how this variable affects audiences' information processing of PSAs. In order to test the ELM, a three-way, 2 (empathy: high v low) x 2 (argument quality: strong v weak) x 2 (peripheral cue: celebrity v non-celebrity status) factorial design was used. A total of 102 male and 119 female students participated (nÂ =Â 221). The results indicated that both high empathy subjects and low empathy subjects were motivated to process the persuasive messages, suggesting that both groups followed the central route to processing. Involvement was found to significantly influence the argument processing of low empathy subjects. Celebrity status did not serve as a peripheral cue in this study.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Sport Management Review.
Volume (Year): 11 (2008)
Issue (Month): 2 (September)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/716936/description#description
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Calder, Bobby J & Phillips, Lynn W & Tybout, Alice M, 1981. " Designing Research for Application," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(2), pages 197-207, September.
- Zaichkowsky, Judith Lynne, 1985. " Measuring the Involvement Construct," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 12(3), pages 341-52, December.
- Escalas, Jennifer Edson & Stern, Barbara B, 2003. " Sympathy and Empathy: Emotional Responses to Advertising Dramas," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 29(4), pages 566-78, March.
- Petty, Richard E & Cacioppo, John T & Schumann, David, 1983. " Central and Peripheral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 10(2), pages 135-46, September.
- Funk, Daniel C. & Haugtvedt, Curtis P. & Howard, Dennis R., 2000. "Contemporary Attitude Theory in Sport: Theoretical Considerations and Implications," Sport Management Review, Elsevier, vol. 3(2), pages 125-144, November.
- Aaker, Jennifer L & Williams, Patti, 1998. " Empathy versus Pride: The Influence of Emotional Appeals across Cultures," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 25(3), pages 241-61, December.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wendy Shamier).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.