Comparing HIV-related symbolic stigma in six African countries: Social representations in young people’s narratives
AbstractHIV-related symbolic stigma arises from moralistic value judgements attached to people living with HIV and has negative consequences from both public health and human rights perspectives. Relatively little is known about cross-national variation in symbolic stigma. With the purpose of informing stigma reduction efforts within and across settings, we compared social representations of HIV in six African countries with estimated adult HIV prevalence rates ranging from 1 to 33%. Our study used a unique data source, namely a stratified random sample (n = 586, ∼5%) from 11,354 creative ideas contributed from six countries to a continent-wide HIV-related scriptwriting contest held between February and April 2005. The narratives were written by equal numbers of males and females aged 10–24 in urban and rural areas of Swaziland, Namibia, Kenya, South-East Nigeria, Burkina Faso and Senegal. We combined three analytical approaches: descriptive statistics on certain quantifiable characteristics of the narratives, thematic data analysis, and a narrative-based approach. The association of HIV with outsiders (“othering”) and preoccupation with the circumstances of infection are more common in lower prevalence countries but vary substantially in tone depending on the sociocultural context. The highest proportion both of moralising narratives and of narratives with pessimistic outcomes come from South-East Nigeria and, to a lesser extent, from Kenya, countries with prevalence levels of 3.9 and 6.1% respectively, in which evangelical Christian movements, including Pentecostalism, have sizeable followings. The data provide a rare cross-cultural overview of symbolic stigma, identify country-specific needs, and point to strategies for future programming. Social representations from the highest prevalence countries, Swaziland and Namibia, and from lower prevalence Burkina Faso offer potential models for the framing of HIV in ways that serve to increase social proximity and counteract symbolic stigma.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Social Science & Medicine.
Volume (Year): 73 (2011)
Issue (Month): 8 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/315/description#description
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Genberg, Becky L. & Hlavka, Zdenek & Konda, Kelika A. & Maman, Suzanne & Chariyalertsak, Suwat & Chingono, Alfred & Mbwambo, Jessie & Modiba, Precious & Van Rooyen, Heidi & Celentano, David D., 2009. "A comparison of HIV/AIDS-related stigma in four countries: Negative attitudes and perceived acts of discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 68(12), pages 2279-2287, June.
- Parker, Richard & Aggleton, Peter, 2003. "HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: a conceptual framework and implications for action," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 13-24, July.
- Maman, Suzanne & Abler, Laurie & Parker, Lisa & Lane, Tim & Chirowodza, Admire & Ntogwisangu, Jacob & Srirak, Namtip & Modiba, Precious & Murima, Oliver & Fritz, Katherine, 2009. "A comparison of HIV stigma and discrimination in five international sites: The influence of care and treatment resources in high prevalence settings," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 68(12), pages 2271-2278, June.
- Maughan-Brown, Brendan, 2010. "Stigma rises despite antiretroviral roll-out: A longitudinal analysis in South Africa," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 70(3), pages 368-374, February.
- Winskell, Kate & Obyerodhyambo, Oby & Stephenson, Rob, 2011. "Making sense of condoms: Social representations in young people's HIV-related narratives from six African countries," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 72(6), pages 953-961, March.
- Campbell, Catherine & Skovdal, Morten & Mupambireyi, Zivai & Gregson, Simon, 2010. "Exploring children's stigmatisation of AIDS-affected children in Zimbabwe through drawings and stories," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 71(5), pages 975-985, September.
- Hejoaka, Fabienne, 2009. "Care and secrecy: Being a mother of children living with HIV in Burkina Faso," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 69(6), pages 869-876, September.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.