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The impact of childhood living conditions on illness and mortality in adulthood

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  • Lundberg, Olle
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    Abstract

    The aim was to explore the relationships between indicators of economic and social problems in childhood on the one hand and illness and mortality in adulthood on the other. In 1968 a representative sample of the Swedish population born 1906-1951 were interviewed about their childhood living conditions, among other things. Four indicators of adverse childhood living conditions were included. Two of these reflect economic circumstances (economic hardship; a large family, defined as four or more siblings), and two reflect social conditions (broken family; conflicts in the family). In 1981, 13 years later, this sample was re-interviewed. This allows for illness in 1981 to be related to reports of childhood conditions given in 1968. A follow-up of mortality for the period 1981-1984 was also conducted. When one controls for age, sex and father's social class, those exposed to economic as well as social problems during childhood are found to have a considerably higher risk of being ill as adults. Of the four factors analysed, conflicts in the family during upbringing is that most strongly related to illness later in life, as well as with mortality. Having a broken family, and, to some extent, economic hardship during childhood, are also clearly associated with illness later in life. These results also hold true when all four factors are included simultaneously in the model, and remain relatively unchanged when controlling for mental illness in 1968. The childhood period as a whole (i.e. to the age of 16) seems to be quite important for adult health in Sweden, and social problems during this period of life seem to be more important in this respect than economic ones. These findings are discussed in the light of the more biological implied by the contemporary literature. Two hypotheses for the underlying mechanisms are suggested, namely (1) a biologically increased susceptibility to illness caused directly by childhood problems and (2) unhealthy life careers triggered by childhood conditions, where the increased illness risk is the sum of several health-damaging factors. It is concluded that the findings presented here lend more support to the second of these hypotheses.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Social Science & Medicine.

    Volume (Year): 36 (1993)
    Issue (Month): 8 (April)
    Pages: 1047-1052

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:36:y:1993:i:8:p:1047-1052

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    Keywords: childhood conditions adult health illness mortality panel data;

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    Cited by:
    1. Christiaan Monden, 2010. "Do Measured and Unmeasured Family Factors Bias the Association Between Education and Self-Assessed Health?," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 98(2), pages 321-336, September.
    2. Eriksson, Tor & Bratsberg, Bernt & Raaum, Oddbjørn, 2005. "Earnings persistence across generations: Transmission through health?," Memorandum 35/2005, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    3. Kristen Harknett, 2009. "Why are Children with Married Parents Healthier? The Case of Pediatric Asthma," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer, vol. 28(3), pages 347-365, June.
    4. McLaughlin, Katie A. & Breslau, Joshua & Green, Jennifer Greif & Lakoma, Matthew D. & Sampson, Nancy A. & Zaslavsky, Alan M. & Kessler, Ronald C., 2011. "Childhood socio-economic status and the onset, persistence, and severity of DSM-IV mental disorders in a US national sample," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 73(7), pages 1088-1096.
    5. Stefania Maggi & Lori G. Irwin & Arjumand Siddiqi & Iraj Poureslami & Emily Hertzman & Clyde Hertzman, 2006. "Analytic and Strategic Review Paper: International Perspectives on Early Child Development," Working Papers id:690, eSocialSciences.
    6. Schenk, Niels & van Poppel, Frans, 2011. "Social class, social mobility and mortality in the Netherlands, 1850-2004," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 401-417, July.
    7. B. Grinde, 2002. "Happiness in the Perspective of Evolutionary Psychology," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 3(4), pages 331-354, December.
    8. Bruno Masquelier, 2013. "Adult Mortality From Sibling Survival Data: A Reappraisal of Selection Biases," Demography, Springer, vol. 50(1), pages 207-228, February.

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