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Motivation, self-efficacy, and risk attitudes among entrepreneurs during transition to a market economy

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  • Tyszka, Tadeusz
  • Cieslik, Jerzy
  • Domurat, Artur
  • Macko, Anna
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    Abstract

    In this research were investigated the three most frequently studied characteristics of entrepreneurs - motivation, self-efficacy, and risk attitudes. We divided the sample of entrepreneurs into two subgroups: opportunity-driven vs. necessity-driven. In agreement with findings of research performed in countries with developed market economies, we found that the need for independence and the need for achievement were of higher importance to the entrepreneurs than to the non-entrepreneurs. However, this was only true of the opportunity-driven subgroup of entrepreneurs, while not of those categorized as necessity-driven. In contrast, the most important motive in the group of non-entrepreneurs and as well as the necessity-driven subgroup of entrepreneurs was job security. In accordance with Knight's claim, we found that opportunity-driven (but not necessity-driven) entrepreneurs revealed higher levels of self-confidence than the group of employees. We did not find support for the claim that entrepreneurs are more risk-prone than wage earners. On the other hand, entrepreneurs (both opportunity- and necessity-driven) reported more everyday risky investment activities than wage earners did. We interpret this observation in terms of the necessity of entrepreneurs for risk-taking, rather than personal preference and liking.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics).

    Volume (Year): 40 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 2 (April)
    Pages: 124-131

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:soceco:v:40:y:2011:i:2:p:124-131

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/620175

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    Keywords: Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurial Motivation Self-efficacy Risk attitudes;

    References

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    1. Chen, Chao C. & Greene, Patricia Gene & Crick, Ann, 1998. "Does entrepreneurial self-efficacy distinguish entrepreneurs from managers?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 295-316, July.
    2. Kahneman, Daniel & Tversky, Amos, 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Econometrica, Econometric Society, Econometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 263-91, March.
    3. StewartJr., Wayne H. & Watson, Warren E. & Carland, Joann C. & Carland, James W., 1999. "A proclivity for entrepreneurship: A comparison of entrepreneurs, small business owners, and corporate managers," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 189-214, March.
    4. Carter, Nancy M. & Gartner, William B. & Shaver, Kelly G. & Gatewood, Elizabeth J., 2003. "The career reasons of nascent entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 13-39, January.
    5. Begley, Thomas M., 1995. "Using founder status, age of firm, and company growth rate as the basis for distinguishing entrepreneurs from managers of smaller businesses," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 249-263, May.
    6. Block, Joern & Wagner, Marcus, 2006. "Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs in Germany: Characteristics and Earnings Differentials," MPRA Paper 610, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Birley, Sue & Westhead, Paul, 1994. "A taxonomy of business start-up reasons and their impact on firm growth and size," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-31, January.
    8. Gatewood, Elizabeth J. & Shaver, Kelly G. & Gartner, William B., 1995. "A longitudinal study of cognitive factors influencing start-up behaviors and success at venture creation," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 10(5), pages 371-391, September.
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