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Determinants of proactive and reactive technology licensing: A contingency perspective

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  • Lichtenthaler, Ulrich
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    Abstract

    Industrial firms increasingly attempt to license their technologies apart from applying them in their own products. Because of the imperfections in technology markets, an active approach towards technology licensing does not automatically result in licensing transactions. To balance prior research, which has focused on licensing transactions as the outcome of licensing intentions, we take a contingency view to analyze how characteristics of a firm's innovation ecosystem determine different strategic types of licensing. Specifically, we distinguish proactive licensing, which refers to identifying recipients for technology transactions, and reactive licensing, which relates to offering licenses to infringers of a firm's intellectual property. Survey data show that environmental antecedents concerning appropriability, i.e., patent protection and technological turbulence, and determinants regarding technology markets, i.e., transaction frequency and competitive intensity, have different effects on proactive and reactive licensing. On this basis, the article has major implications for research into technology licensing, markets for technology, and open innovation.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Research Policy.

    Volume (Year): 39 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 1 (February)
    Pages: 55-66

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:39:y:2010:i:1:p:55-66

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/respol

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    Keywords: Technology licensing Technology exploitation Markets for technology Appropriability Open innovation;

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    References

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    Cited by:
    1. Hung, Shiu-Wan & Wang, An-Pang, 2012. "Entrepreneurs with glamour? DEA performance characterization of high-tech and older-established industries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 1146-1153.
    2. Kani, Masayo & Motohashi, Kazuyuki, 2012. "Understanding the technology market for patents: New insights from a licensing survey of Japanese firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 226-235.
    3. Gambardella, Alfonso & Giarratana, Marco S., 2013. "General technological capabilities, product market fragmentation, and markets for technology," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 315-325.
    4. Lis-Gutiérrez, Jenny-Paola, 2013. "Gestión de la propiedad intelectual en las organizaciones. Una revisión de la literatura reciente
      [Intellectual Property Management in Organizations. A Review of Recent Literature]
      ," MPRA Paper 47757, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Cruz-Cázares, Claudio & Bayona-Sáez, Cristina & García-Marco, Teresa, 2013. "You can’t manage right what you can’t measure well: Technological innovation efficiency," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(6), pages 1239-1250.

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