Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Greener energy: Issues and challenges for Pakistan--Biomass energy prospective


Author Info

  • Bhutto, Abdul Waheed
  • Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed
  • Zahedi, Gholamreza
Registered author(s):


    Diversification of fuel sources is imperative to address the energy security, climate change, and sustainable development issues; therefore, it is essential to address the energy crisis through the extensive utilization of abundant renewable energy resources, such as biomass energy, solar energy, wind energy and geothermal energy. Improving energy services for poor households in developing countries remains one of the most pressing challenges facing the development community. Earlier studies suggest in South Asia the households are likely to follow the energy ladder comprising fuels like dung, crop residue, firewood, kerosene, gobar gas, LPG, and electricity for cooking purposes. Evidence suggests that while it is possible to observe such transition in urban and semi-urban areas, the change is very slow in rural areas. In rural Pakistan, the access to commercial energy resources is limited, the majority of the households still heavily rely on traditional methods of using wood, animal waste and crop waste for domestic fuel needs. Efficiencies of use are very low and most of the potential is wasted because of non-scientific conventional technologies. Consequently there is an obligatory need to develop modern bio-energy technologies since renewable resources may serve to supplement the long-term energy needs of Pakistan to a significant level. Though the bio-resource base of Pakistan is substantial, its contribution to useful energy is low. In this paper we called attention to issues and challenges in biomass utilization for energy in Pakistan in context of sustainable development. This paper has identified areas in Pakistan where there is considerable scope to modernize biomass energy production delivery systems to provide varied energy carriers such as electricity, industrial and domestic fuel and gases. Barriers are examined over the whole biomass energy spectrum and policy issue and institutional roles and responsibilities are discussed.

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.

    Volume (Year): 15 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 6 (August)
    Pages: 3207-3219

    as in new window
    Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:15:y:2011:i:6:p:3207-3219

    Contact details of provider:
    Web page:

    Order Information:

    Related research

    Keywords: Green energy Biomass Modern bioenergy Sustainable development Pakistan South Asia;


    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
    as in new window
    1. Edwards, Rufus D. & Smith, Kirk R. & Zhang, Junfeng & Ma, Yuqing, 2004. "Implications of changes in household stoves and fuel use in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 395-411, February.
    2. Viswanathan, Brinda & Kavi Kumar, K. S., 2005. "Cooking fuel use patterns in India: 1983-2000," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(8), pages 1021-1036, May.
    3. Demirbas, Ayhan, 2008. "Importance of biomass energy sources for Turkey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 834-842, February.
    4. Lora, E.S. & Andrade, R.V., 2009. "Biomass as energy source in Brazil," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 777-788, May.
    5. Ghaffar, Mohammed A., 1995. "The energy supply situation in the rural sector of Pakistan and the potential of renewable energy technologies," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 6(8), pages 941-976.
    6. Omer, Abdeen M., 2005. "Biomass energy potential and future prospect in Sudan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 1-27, February.
    7. Mirza, Umar K. & Ahmad, Nasir & Majeed, Tariq, 2008. "An overview of biomass energy utilization in Pakistan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 12(7), pages 1988-1996, September.
    8. Hall, D. O., 1991. "Biomass energy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 19(8), pages 711-737, October.
    9. Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed & Zahedi, Gholamreza & Hashim, Haslenda, 2011. "Progress and challenges in utilization of palm oil biomass as fuel for decentralized electricity generation," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 574-583, January.
    10. Pode, Ramchandra, 2010. "Addressing India's energy security and options for decreasing energy dependency," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(9), pages 3014-3022, December.
    11. Kishore, V. V. N. & Bhandari, Preety M. & Gupta, Pratul, 2004. "Biomass energy technologies for rural infrastructure and village power--opportunities and challenges in the context of global climate change concerns," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 801-810, April.
    12. Hilkiah Igoni, A. & Ayotamuno, M.J. & Eze, C.L. & Ogaji, S.O.T. & Probert, S.D., 2008. "Designs of anaerobic digesters for producing biogas from municipal solid-waste," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 85(6), pages 430-438, June.
    13. Bridgwater, A. V. & Toft, A. J. & Brammer, J. G., 2002. "A techno-economic comparison of power production by biomass fast pyrolysis with gasification and combustion," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 181-246, September.
    14. Buragohain, Buljit & Mahanta, Pinakeswar & Moholkar, Vijayanand S., 2010. "Biomass gasification for decentralized power generation: The Indian perspective," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 73-92, January.
    15. Singh, Jasvinder & Gu, Sai, 2010. "Biomass conversion to energy in India--A critique," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 1367-1378, June.
    16. Kirubakaran, V. & Sivaramakrishnan, V. & Nalini, R. & Sekar, T. & Premalatha, M. & Subramanian, P., 2009. "A review on gasification of biomass," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 179-186, January.
    17. Tsai, W. T. & Chou, Y. H., 2005. "Overview of environmental impacts, prospects and policies for renewable energy in Taiwan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 119-147, April.
    18. Sahir, Mukhtar H. & Qureshi, Arshad H., 2008. "Assessment of new and renewable energy resources potential and identification of barriers to their significant utilization in Pakistan," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 290-298, January.
    19. Masera, Omar R. & Saatkamp, Barbara D. & Kammen, Daniel M., 2000. "From Linear Fuel Switching to Multiple Cooking Strategies: A Critique and Alternative to the Energy Ladder Model," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(12), pages 2083-2103, December.
    20. Ekholm, Tommi & Krey, Volker & Pachauri, Shonali & Riahi, Keywan, 2010. "Determinants of household energy consumption in India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 5696-5707, October.
    21. Katuwal, Hari & Bohara, Alok K., 2009. "Biogas: A promising renewable technology and its impact on rural households in Nepal," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(9), pages 2668-2674, December.
    22. Chang, J. & Leung, Dennis Y. C. & Wu, C. Z. & Yuan, Z. H., 2003. "A review on the energy production, consumption, and prospect of renewable energy in China," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 453-468, October.
    23. Ramachandra, T. V. & Kamakshi, G. & Shruthi, B. V., 2004. "Bioresource status in Karnataka," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-47, February.
    24. Ashraf Chaudhry, M. & Raza, R. & Hayat, S.A., 2009. "Renewable energy technologies in Pakistan: Prospects and challenges," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 13(6-7), pages 1657-1662, August.
    25. Reddy, Amulya K.N. & Reddy, B.Sudhakara, 1994. "Substitution of energy carriers for cooking in Bangalore," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 561-571.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as in new window

    Cited by:
    1. Ali, Ghaffar & Nitivattananon, Vilas & Abbas, Sawaid & Sabir, Muazzam, 2012. "Green waste to biogas: Renewable energy possibilities for Thailand's green markets," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(7), pages 5423-5429.


    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.


    Access and download statistics


    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:15:y:2011:i:6:p:3207-3219. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.