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Embedded energy and total greenhouse gas emissions in final consumptions within Thailand

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  • Limmeechokchai, Bundit
  • Suksuntornsiri, Pawinee
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    Abstract

    In order to quantify the total Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from different commodities, the contribution of emissions in all subprocess chains has to be considered. In embedded energy analysis, the higher order production processes are usually truncated due to a lack of data. To fill the truncated subprocesses up to infinite process chains, energy intensities and GHG emission factors of various final consumptions in the economy evaluated by the Input-Output Analysis (IOA) must be applied. The direct GHG emissions in final consumptions in Thailand are evaluated by imitating the approach in the energy sector of the revised 1996 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for national GHG inventories. The indirect energy and indirect emissions are evaluated by using the 1998 Input-Output (I-O) table. Results are presented of emissions in the main process, indirect processes, and on each subprocess chain order. The trend of energy intensity and emission factors of all final consumptions for 1995, 1998, 2001 and 2006 are also presented. Results show that the highest energy intensive sector is the electricity sector where fossil fuel is primarily used, but the highest total GHG emitter is the cement industry where the major sources of the emissions are industrial processes and the combustion of fossil fuels. Implication of the emission factors on electricity generating technologies shows that various cleaner electricity generating technologies, including renewable energy technology, could help in global GHG mitigation.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.

    Volume (Year): 11 (2007)
    Issue (Month): 2 (February)
    Pages: 259-281

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:rensus:v:11:y:2007:i:2:p:259-281

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    Related research

    Keywords: GHG emissions Energy intensity Input-output analysis Full-energy-chains-analysis Clean electricity generating technology;

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    Cited by:
    1. Nugent, Daniel & Sovacool, Benjamin K., 2014. "Assessing the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions from solar PV and wind energy: A critical meta-survey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 229-244.
    2. Liu, Hong-Tao & Guo, Ju-E & Qian, Dong & Xi, You-Min, 2009. "Comprehensive evaluation of household indirect energy consumption and impacts of alternative energy policies in China by input-output analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 3194-3204, August.
    3. Chen, Z.M. & Chen, G.Q., 2011. "Embodied carbon dioxide emission at supra-national scale: A coalition analysis for G7, BRIC, and the rest of the world," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2899-2909, May.
    4. Zhang, Bo & Chen, Z.M. & Xia, X.H. & Xu, X.Y. & Chen, Y.B., 2013. "The impact of domestic trade on China's regional energy uses: A multi-regional input–output modeling," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1169-1181.
    5. Liu, Jun & Feng, Tingting & Yang, Xi, 2011. "The energy requirements and carbon dioxide emissions of tourism industry of Western China: A case of Chengdu city," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 2887-2894, August.
    6. Chen, G.Q. & Zhang, Bo, 2010. "Greenhouse gas emissions in China 2007: Inventory and input-output analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(10), pages 6180-6193, October.
    7. Wiedmann, Thomas, 2009. "A review of recent multi-region input-output models used for consumption-based emission and resource accounting," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 211-222, December.
    8. Shrestha, Ram M. & Malla, Sunil & Liyanage, Migara H., 2007. "Scenario-based analyses of energy system development and its environmental implications in Thailand," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 3179-3193, June.
    9. Liu, Hongtao & Xi, Youmin & Guo, Ju'e & Li, Xia, 2010. "Energy embodied in the international trade of China: An energy input-output analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 3957-3964, August.
    10. Zhang, Bo & Chen, G.Q., 2010. "Methane emissions by Chinese economy: Inventory and embodiment analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 4304-4316, August.

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