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Duration of maternity leave in Germany: A case study of nonparametric hazard models and penalized splines

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  • Kuhlenkasper, Torben
  • Kauermann, Göran
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    Abstract

    The paper investigates maternity leave behavior in West Germany for females being employed between 1995 and 2006 using data from the German Socio Economic Panel. The observational study focuses on the investigation of individual and family-related covariate effects on the duration of maternity leave following first or second childbirth, respectively. Dynamic duration time models are used in which covariate effects are allowed to vary smoothly with duration of being in maternity leave. The intention of the paper is to demonstrate with state of the art models how effects of covariables change over time and to analyse substantial differences between maternity leaves following first and second childbirth. Particularly the personal income of mothers and the educational attainment influence the decision when to return into employment. The leave period following second birth is influenced by the mothers' attachment to the labour market between their two maternity leave periods. As fitting routine penalized spline smoothing effects is employed using available software in R (http://www.r-project.org).

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Labour Economics.

    Volume (Year): 17 (2010)
    Issue (Month): 3 (June)
    Pages: 466-473

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:labeco:v:17:y:2010:i:3:p:466-473

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/labeco

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    Keywords: Duration time models Dynamic effects Maternity leave Panel data Employment transition;

    References

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    1. Bernd Fitzenberger & Reinhold Schnabel & Gaby Wunderlich, 2004. "The gender gap in labor market participation and employment: A cohort analysis for West Germany," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 17(1), pages 83-116, February.
    2. Heckman, James & Singer, Burton, 1984. "A Method for Minimizing the Impact of Distributional Assumptions in Econometric Models for Duration Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(2), pages 271-320, March.
    3. Gutierrez-Domenech, Maria, 2005. "Employment after motherhood: a European comparison," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 99-123, February.
    4. El Lahga, AbdelRahmen & Moreau, Nicolas, 2007. "Would you Marry me? The Effects of Marriage on German Couples? Allocation of Time," ZEW Discussion Papers 07-024, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    5. Bover, O. & Arellano, M. & Bentolila, S., 1997. "Unemployment Duration, Benefit Duration, and the Business Cycle," Papers 9717, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Y Financieros-.
    6. Kauermann, Goran & Khomski, Pavel, 2006. "Additive two-way hazards model with varying coefficients," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 1944-1956, December.
    7. Fitzenberger, Bernd & Wunderlich, Gaby, 2002. "The changing life cycle pattern in female employment: a comparison of Germany and the UK," ZEW Discussion Papers 02-70, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    8. Gert G. Wagner & Joachim R. Frick & Jürgen Schupp, 2007. "The German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) – Scope, Evolution and Enhancements," Schmollers Jahrbuch : Journal of Applied Social Science Studies / Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, vol. 127(1), pages 139-169.
    9. Kauermann, Goran, 2005. "Penalized spline smoothing in multivariable survival models with varying coefficients," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 169-186, April.
    10. Charles Baum, 2002. "A dynamic analysis of the effect of child care costs on the work decisions of low-income mothers with infants," Demography, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 139-164, February.
    11. Dex, Shirley, et al, 1998. "Women's Employment Transitions around Child Bearing," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 60(1), pages 79-98, February.
    12. Karsten Hank & Michaela Kreyenfeld, 2000. "Does the availability of childcare influence the employment of mothers? Findings from western Germany," MPIDR Working Papers WP-2000-003, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany.
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    Cited by:
    1. Torben Kuhlenkasper & Max Friedrich Steinhardt, 2011. "Unemployment Duration in Germany – A comprehensive study with dynamic hazard models and P-Splines," Norface Discussion Paper Series 2011018, Norface Research Programme on Migration, Department of Economics, University College London.
    2. Kuhlenkasper, Torben & Kauermann, Göran, 2010. "Female wage profiles: An additive mixed model approach to employment breaks due to childcare," HWWI Research Papers 2-18, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).

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