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Competition and contracts in the Nordic residential electricity markets

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  • Littlechild, Stephen

Abstract

The main Nordic residential electricity markets (Norway, Sweden and Finland) effectively opened to retail competition around 1998. They have not been subject to regulatory controls on prices or other contract terms. Between 11 and 29 per cent of residential customers have switched suppliers and between a fifth and a half of all residential customers have chosen alternative contractual terms of supply. These alternatives include fixed price contracts ranging from 3 months to five years duration, as well as spot-price related terms, instead of the standard variable tariffs. The use of these alternatives is increasing over time, and there is considerable product innovation. This paper surveys these developments and illustrates with case studies of significant suppliers in each Nordic market. The market is thus ascertaining and bringing about the outcomes that customers prefer. Without retail competition, it is not clear how regulation will replicate this aspect of the market process.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Utilities Policy.

Volume (Year): 14 (2006)
Issue (Month): 3 (September)
Pages: 135-147

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Handle: RePEc:eee:juipol:v:14:y:2006:i:3:p:135-147

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/30478

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References

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  1. Littlechild, S., 2004. "‘UK domestic energy contracts, the 28 day rule, and experience in Sweden’," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0431, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  2. Evens SALIES & Catherine WADDAMS PRICE, 2005. "Charges, Costs and Market Power: the Deregulated UK Electricity Retail Market," Industrial Organization 0508010, EconWPA.
  3. Paul L. Joskow, 1998. "Electricity Sectors in Transition," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 25-52.
  4. von der Fehr, N-H.M. & Amundsen , E.S. & Bergman, L., 2005. "The Nordic Market: Signs of Stress?," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0525, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  5. Paul L. Joskow, 2003. "The Difficult Transition to Competitive Electricity Markets in the U.S," Working Papers 0308, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research.
  6. Green, Richard & McDaniel, Tanga, 1998. "Competition in Electricity Supply: Will '1998' be Worth it?," CEPR Discussion Papers 1814, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Littlechild, Stephen, 2006. "Residential energy contracts and the 28 day rule," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 44-62, March.
  8. Stephen C. Littlechild, 2001. "Competition And Regulation In The U.K. Electricity Industry (With A Brief Look At California)," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 13(4), pages 21-38.
  9. Littlechild, Stephen C, 2003. "Wholesale Spot Price Pass-Through," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 23(1), pages 61-91, January.
  10. Evens SALIES & Catherine WADDAMS, 2004. "Charges, costs and market power in the deregulated UK electricity retail market," Industrial Organization 0406003, EconWPA.
  11. Littlechild Stephen C., 2002. "Competition in Retail Electricity Supply," Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines, De Gruyter, vol. 12(2), pages 1-26, June.
  12. Monica Giulietti & Catherine Waddams Price & Michael Waterson, 2005. "Consumer Choice and Competition Policy: a Study of UK Energy Markets," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(506), pages 949-968, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Nils-Henrik M. Von Der Fehr & Petter Vegard Hansen, 2009. "Electricity Retailing in Norway," EUI-RSCAS Working Papers 4, European University Institute (EUI), Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies (RSCAS).
  2. Erdogdu, Erkan, 2013. "Essays on Electricity Market Reforms: A Cross-Country Applied Approach," MPRA Paper 47139, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Lehto, Eero, 2011. "Electricity prices in the Finnish retail market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(4), pages 2179-2192, April.
  4. Littlechild, S., 2007. "Municipal aggregation and retail competition in the Ohio energy sector," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0739, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  5. Johnsen, Tor Arnt & Olsen, Ole Jess, 2011. "Regulated and unregulated Nordic retail prices," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(6), pages 3337-3345, June.
  6. Arango, Santiago & Larsen, Erik, 2011. "Cycles in deregulated electricity markets: Empirical evidence from two decades," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2457-2466, May.
  7. Poupeau, François-Mathieu, 2009. "Domestic customers and reform of the gas sector. An organisational sociology perspective," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(12), pages 5385-5392, December.
  8. Torstein Bye & Petter Vegard Hansen, 2008. "How do Spot prices affect aggregate electricity demand?," Discussion Papers 527, Research Department of Statistics Norway.
  9. Mirza, Faisal Mehmood & Bergland, Olvar, 2012. "Pass-through of wholesale price to the end user retail price in the Norwegian electricity market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 2003-2012.
  10. Danias, Nikolaos & Kim Swales, John & McGregor, Peter, 2013. "The Greek Electricity Market Reforms: Political and Regulatory Considerations," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1040-1047.
  11. Defeuilley, Christophe, 2009. "Retail competition in electricity markets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 377-386, February.

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