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The time dimension and lithium resource constraints for electric vehicles

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  • Kushnir, Duncan
  • Sandén, Björn A.
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    Abstract

    The availability of lithium resources for a transition to electric vehicles is a vital topic for transport technology strategy. Recent debate seems to have concluded that there is ‘sufficient’ lithium available, but for the purposes of a technological transition, time matters. It is not simply the quantity of resource that is relevant—the flow rate into society may be a much more difficult constraint and transient events have disrupted heavily concentrated material supply chains in the past. Furthermore, critical assumptions such as the presence of recycling systems may not be justified without policy support. Complacency is therefore not an appropriate stance for a robust evaluation of material risks in the case of lithium.

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    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301420711000754
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Resources Policy.

    Volume (Year): 37 (2012)
    Issue (Month): 1 ()
    Pages: 93-103

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jrpoli:v:37:y:2012:i:1:p:93-103

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/30467

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    Keywords: Transport; Battery; Electric; Vehicle; Transition; Lithium;

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    References

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    1. Tilton, John E. & Lagos, Gustavo, 2007. "Assessing the long-run availability of copper," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(1-2), pages 19-23.
    2. William D. Nordhaus, 1973. "The Allocation of Energy Resources," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 4(3), pages 529-576.
    3. Vernon Topp & Leo Soames & Dean Parham & Harry Bloch, 2008. "Productivity in the Mining Industry: Measurement and Interpretation," Staff Working Papers 0807, Productivity Commission, Government of Australia.
    4. Svedberg, Peter & Tilton, John, 2003. "The Real Real Price of Nonrenewable Resources: Copper 1870-2000," Seminar Papers 723, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    5. Govett, M. H. & Govett, G. J. S., 1978. "Geological supply and economic demand : The unresolved equation," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 106-114, June.
    6. Ebensperger, Arlene & Maxwell, Philip & Moscoso, Christian, 2005. "The lithium industry: Its recent evolution and future prospects," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 218-231, September.
    7. Slade, Margaret E., 1982. "Trends in natural-resource commodity prices: An analysis of the time domain," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 122-137, June.
    8. Yaksic, Andrés & Tilton, John E., 2009. "Using the cumulative availability curve to assess the threat of mineral depletion: The case of lithium," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 185-194, December.
    9. Ayres, Robert U., 1999. "The second law, the fourth law, recycling and limits to growth," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 473-483, June.
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    Cited by:
    1. Miedema, Jan H. & Moll, Henri C., 2013. "Lithium availability in the EU27 for battery-driven vehicles: The impact of recycling and substitution on the confrontation between supply and demand until2050," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 204-211.

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