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Steel consumption and economic activity in the UK: The integration and cointegration debate

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  • Evans, Mark
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    Abstract

    This research examines whether a long-run stationary equilibrium relationship holds between economic activity and the consumption of crude steel within the UK. Using the theory of fractionally integrated and cointegrated processes, and allowing for the possibility that the equilibrium path changes abruptly at occasional points in time, it is possible to determine if steel consumption and economic activity follow a common stochastic trend or whether the two series randomly drift apart over time. Evidence is found to support such a long term relationship. This result is at odds with the conclusions drawn by previous researchers in the area. The reason for this difference may be due to these researchers concentrating only on I(0) and I(1) specifications, without consideration of fractional possibilities and also to a failure to account for structural breaks in the equilibrium relationship. Such conclusions are made within the framework of the ARFIMA methodology that yields reliable inferences on the degree of fractional integration and cointegration. Critical values for fractional contegration with an ARFIMA model in the presence of structural breaks are also derived in this paper.

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    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301420710000711
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Resources Policy.

    Volume (Year): 36 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 2 (June)
    Pages: 97-106

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jrpoli:v:36:y:2011:i:2:p:97-106

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/30467

    Related research

    Keywords: Steel consumption Intensity of use Fractional integration Fraction cointegration ARFIMA;

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    1. Doornik Jurgen A & Ooms Marius, 2004. "Inference and Forecasting for ARFIMA Models With an Application to US and UK Inflation," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 8(2), pages 1-25, May.
    2. Smith, Anthony A, Jr & Sowell, Fallaw & Zin, Stanley E, 1997. "Fractional Integration with Drift: Estimation in Small Samples," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 103-16.
    3. Granger, C. W. J., 1980. "Long memory relationships and the aggregation of dynamic models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 227-238, October.
    4. Caporale, Guglielmo Maria & Gil-Alana, Luis A., 2004. "Fractional cointegration and tests of present value models," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 245-258.
    5. Luis A. Gil-Alana, 2003. "Testing of Fractional Cointegration in Macroeconomic Time Series," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 65(4), pages 517-529, 09.
    6. A. J. Abbott & K. A. Lawler & C. Armistead, 1999. "The UK demand for steel," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(11), pages 1299-1302.
    7. Baillie, Richard T., 1996. "Long memory processes and fractional integration in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 5-59, July.
    8. Auty, Richard, 1985. "Materials intensity of GDP: Research issues on the measurement and explanation of change," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 275-283, December.
    9. Stock, James H, 1987. "Asymptotic Properties of Least Squares Estimators of Cointegrating Vectors," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(5), pages 1035-56, September.
    10. Labson B. Stephen & Crompton Paul L., 1993. "Common Trends in Economic Activity and Metals Demand: Cointegration and the Intensity of Use Debate," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 147-161, September.
    11. Nelson, Charles R. & Plosser, Charles I., 1982. "Trends and random walks in macroeconmic time series : Some evidence and implications," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 139-162.
    12. Engle, Robert F, 1982. "Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 987-1007, July.
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