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Steering sheep: How expressed emotional ambivalence elicits dominance in interdependent decision making contexts

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  • Rothman, Naomi B.
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    Abstract

    This research proposes that expressed emotional ambivalence elicits greater dominance in observers than expressed happiness or anger because ambivalence conveys deliberation and therefore submissiveness. Four laboratory studies yielded convergent findings across different measures of dominance and manipulations of emotional expressions (videos and vignettes). Study 1 showed that participants can identify the expression of tension and conflict as ambivalence and can reliably distinguish ambivalence expressions from the expression of a related emotion (sadness), as well as unrelated emotions (happiness and anger). Study 2 showed that participants intended to dominate the ambivalent partner significantly more than the happy, angry, or non-emotional partner. Study 3 provides evidence that negotiators dominated the ambivalent partner because they perceived the ambivalent partner as more deliberative, and thus submissive. Study 4 confirmed - using a different manipulation of ambivalence - that expressed ambivalence leads to perceived submissiveness because it suggests greater deliberation.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.

    Volume (Year): 116 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 1 (September)
    Pages: 66-82

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jobhdp:v:116:y:2011:i:1:p:66-82

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/obhdp

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    Keywords: Emotions Emotional ambivalence Dominance Negotiation;

    References

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    1. Thompson, Leigh & Loewenstein, George, 1992. "Egocentric interpretations of fairness and interpersonal conflict," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 176-197, March.
    2. Kahneman, Daniel, 1992. "Reference points, anchors, norms, and mixed feelings," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 296-312, March.
    3. Tiedens, Larissa Z., 2001. "Anger and Advancement versus Sadness and Subjugation: The Effect of Negative Emotion Expressions on Social Status Conferral," Research Papers 1615, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    4. Williams, Patti & Aaker, Jennifer L, 2002. " Can Mixed Emotions Peacefully Coexist?," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(4), pages 636-49, March.
    5. Wiesenfeld, Batia M. & Brockner, Joel & Thibault, Valerie, 2000. "Procedural Fairness, Managers' Self-Esteem, and Managerial Behaviors Following a Layoff," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 1-32, September.
    6. Kopelman, Shirli & Rosette, Ashleigh Shelby & Thompson, Leigh, 2006. "The three faces of Eve: Strategic displays of positive, negative, and neutral emotions in negotiations," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 81-101, January.
    7. Jennifer Aaker & Aimee Drolet & Dale Griffin, 2008. "Recalling Mixed Emotions," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 35(2), pages 268-278, 04.
    8. Aaker, Jennifer L. & Drolet, Aimee L. & Griffin, Dale, 2008. "Recalling Mixed Emotions," Research Papers 1913, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    9. Guth, Werner & Schmittberger, Rolf & Schwarze, Bernd, 1982. "An experimental analysis of ultimatum bargaining," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 367-388, December.
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    Cited by:
    1. Blader, Steven L. & Wiesenfeld, Batia M. & Fortin, Marion & Wheeler-Smith, Sara L., 2013. "Fairness lies in the heart of the beholder: How the social emotions of third parties influence reactions to injustice," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 121(1), pages 62-80.

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