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Is cannabis a stepping-stone for cocaine?

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  • van Ours, Jan C.

Abstract

This Paper uses a unique dataset collected among inhabitants of Amsterdam, to study the dynamics in the consumption of cannabis and cocaine. If people start using these drugs they are most likely to do so at age 18-20 for cannabis and age 20-25 for cocaine. An analysis of the starting rates shows some evidence of cannabis being a ‘stepping stone’ for cocaine. The fact that some individuals use both cannabis and cocaine has, however, to do mostly with (unobserved) personal characteristics and not with the use of cannabis causing the use of cocaine.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Health Economics.

Volume (Year): 22 (2003)
Issue (Month): 4 (July)
Pages: 539-554

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Handle: RePEc:eee:jhecon:v:22:y:2003:i:4:p:539-554

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505560

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References

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  1. Becker, Gary S & Grossman, Michael & Murphy, Kevin M, 1994. "An Empirical Analysis of Cigarette Addiction," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(3), pages 396-418, June.
  2. Athanasios Orphanides & David Zervos, 1992. "Rational addiction with learning and regret," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 216, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Stephen Pudney, . "The Road to Ruin? Sequences of Initiation to Drug Use and Offending by Young People in Britain," Discussion Papers in Public Sector Economics 01/3, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
  4. van den Berg, Gerard J & van der Klaauw, Bas & van Ours, Jan C, 2000. "Punitive Sanctions and the Transition Rate From Welfare to Work," CEPR Discussion Papers 2447, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. Van den Berg, Gerard J., 2000. "Duration Models: Specification, Identification, and Multiple Durations," MPRA Paper 9446, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Michael Grossman & Frank J. Chaloupka & Charles C. Brown, 1996. "The Demand for Cocaine by Young Adults: A Rational Addiction Approach," NBER Working Papers 5713, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. MacDonald, Ziggy & Pudney, Stephen, 2000. "Illicit drug use, unemployment, and occupational attainment," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 1089-1115, November.
  8. Jaap H. Abbring & Gerard J. van den Berg, 2003. "The Nonparametric Identification of Treatment Effects in Duration Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(5), pages 1491-1517, 09.
  9. Beenstock, Michael & Rahav, Giora, 2002. "Testing Gateway Theory: do cigarette prices affect illicit drug use?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 679-698, July.
  10. Abbring, Jaap H. & Berg, Gerard J. van den & Ours, Jan C. van, 1996. "The effect of unemployment insurance sanctions on the transition rate from unemployment to employment," Serie Research Memoranda 0038, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
  11. Berg, G. van den & Klaauw, B. van der & Ours, J.C. van, 1998. "Punitive sanctions and the transition from welfare to work," Discussion Paper 1998-56, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  12. Rosalie Liccardo Pacula, 1998. "Adolescent Alcohol and Marijuana Consumption: Is There Really a Gateway Effect?," NBER Working Papers 6348, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Saffer, Henry & Chaloupka, Frank, 1999. "The Demand for Illicit Drugs," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 37(3), pages 401-11, July.
  14. Lalive, R. & Ours, J.C. van & Zweimüller, J., 2000. "The Impact of Active Labor Market Programs and Benefit Entitlement Rules on the Duration of Unemployment," Discussion Paper 2000-41, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  15. Douglas, Stratford & Hariharan, Govind, 1994. "The hazard of starting smoking: Estimates from a split population duration model," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 213-230, July.
  16. Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo, 1998. "Does increasing the beer tax reduce marijuana consumption?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 557-585, October.
  17. Douglas, Stratford, 1998. "The Duration of the Smoking Habit," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 36(1), pages 49-64, January.
  18. Bonnal, Liliane & Fougere, Denis & Serandon, Anne, 1997. "Evaluating the Impact of French Employment Policies on Individual Labour Market Histories," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 64(4), pages 683-713, October.
  19. Jeffrey DeSimone, 1998. "Is Marijuana a Gateway Drug?," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 24(2), pages 149-164, Spring.
  20. Aloys Prinz, 1997. "Drugs: Do European drugs policies matter?," Economic Policy, CEPR & CES & MSH, vol. 12(25), pages 371-385, October.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Ours, J.C. van, 2005. "Cannabis, Cocaine and Jobs," Discussion Paper 2005-15, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  2. John Cawley & Stephanie von Hinke Kessler Scholder, 2013. "The Demand for Cigarettes as Derived from the Demand for Weight Control," NBER Working Papers 18805, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Jan C. van Ours, 2006. "Dynamics in the use of drugs," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(12), pages 1283-1294.
  4. van Ours, Jan C & Williams, Jenny, 2005. "Cannabis Prices and Dynamics of Cannabis Use," CEPR Discussion Papers 4991, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  5. van Ours, Jan C. & Williams, Jenny, 2009. "Why parents worry: Initiation into cannabis use by youth and their educational attainment," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 132-142, January.
  6. Ours, J.C. van, 2005. "Ecstacy and cocaine: Patterns of use among prime age individuals in Amsterdam," Discussion Paper 2005-16, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  7. Massimiliano Bratti & Konstantinos Tatsiramos, 2012. "The effect of delaying motherhood on the second childbirth in Europe," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 25(1), pages 291-321, January.
  8. Carlos Casacuberta & Mariana Gerstenblüth & Patricia Triunfo, 2012. "Aportes del análisis económico al estudio de las drogas," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 0112, Department of Economics - dECON.
  9. Jan Ours & Stephen Pudney, 2006. "On the Economics of Illicit Drugs," De Economist, Springer, vol. 154(4), pages 483-490, December.
  10. repec:ese:iserwp:2011-13 is not listed on IDEAS
  11. Ours, J.C. van, 2005. "Dynamics in the Use of Drugs," Discussion Paper 2005-21, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  12. Kenneth Clements & Yihui Lan & Xueyan Zhao, 2010. "The demand for marijuana, tobacco and alcohol: inter-commodity interactions with uncertainty," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 203-239, August.
  13. Ours, J.C. van, 2005. "Cannabis Use When it's Legal," Discussion Paper 2005-12, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  14. Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line & Jacobi, Liana, 2008. "Climbing the Drug Staircase: A Bayesian Analysis of the Initiation of Hard Drug Use," IZA Discussion Papers 3879, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  15. Liana Jacobi & Michelle Sovinsky, 2012. "Marijuana on main street: What if?," ECON - Working Papers 087, Department of Economics - University of Zurich.
  16. Evgeny Yakovlev, 2012. "USSR babies: who drinks vodka in Russia?," Working Papers w0183, Center for Economic and Financial Research (CEFIR).

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