Distributional effects of agricultural cooperatives in China: Exclusion of smallholders and potential gains on participation
AbstractThis paper examines the treatment effects of the agricultural cooperative and publicly funded extension services on individual household economy, using data collected by the author from watermelon-producing farm households in rural Nanjing. The cooperative addressed in this study restricts the participation of small-scale farmers, implying that selection into the program must be taken into consideration for an accurate assessment of the treatment effect. The econometric analysis revealed that government extension services have a modest effect on farm income. In contrast, the treatment effect of the agricultural cooperative is robust and substantially large, accounting for nearly 70% of the pre-matching difference. This suggests that the agricultural cooperative system is an important avenue for farmers to improve their economic status. The treatment effect of the agricultural cooperative is highly heterogeneous; the economic benefits arising from the cooperative are significant only for small-scale farms. We can argue that a coexistence of smallholder exclusion and the treatment effect in favor of small-scale farms poses serious challenges to pro-poor agricultural growth in China.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Food Policy.
Volume (Year): 37 (2012)
Issue (Month): 6 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/foodpol
Agricultural cooperatives; Contract farming; Treatment effect; China;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Heckman, James, 2013.
"Sample selection bias as a specification error,"
Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
- Dehejia, R.H. & Wahba, S., 1998.
"Propensity Score Matching Methods for Non-Experimental Causal Studies,"
1998_02, Columbia University, Department of Economics.
- Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 2002. "Propensity Score-Matching Methods For Nonexperimental Causal Studies," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(1), pages 151-161, February.
- Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 1998. "Propensity Score Matching Methods for Non-experimental Causal Studies," NBER Working Papers 6829, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 2002. "Propensity score matching methods for non-experimental causal studies," Discussion Papers 0102-14, Columbia University, Department of Economics.
- Johan F. M. Swinnen & Miet Maertens, 2007.
"Globalization, privatization, and vertical coordination in food value chains in developing and transition countries,"
International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 37(s1), pages 89-102, December.
- Swinnen, Johan F.M. & Maertens, Miet, 2006. "Globalization, Privatization, and Vertical Coordination in Food Value Chains in Developing and Transition Countries," 2006 Annual Meeting, August 12-18, 2006, Queensland, Australia 25626, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Maertens, Miet & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2007.
"Trade, Standards and Poverty. Evidence from Senegal,"
106th Seminar, October 25-27, 2007, Montpellier, France
7924, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Maertens, Miet & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Trade, Standards, and Poverty: Evidence from Senegal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 161-178, January.
- Miet Maertens & Johan F.M. Swinnen, 2006. "Trade, Standards, and Poverty: Evidence from Senegal," LICOS Discussion Papers 17706, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
- Bolwig, Simon & Gibbon, Peter & Jones, Sam, 2009. "The Economics of Smallholder Organic Contract Farming in Tropical Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 1094-1104, June.
- repec:att:wimass:9127 is not listed on IDEAS
- Ichino, Andrea & Mealli, Fabrizia & Nannicini, Tommaso, 2006.
"From Temporary Help Jobs to Permanent Employment: What Can We Learn from Matching Estimators and their Sensitivity?,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
5736, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Andrea Ichino & Fabrizia Mealli & Tommaso Nannicini, 2008. "From temporary help jobs to permanent employment: what can we learn from matching estimators and their sensitivity?," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(3), pages 305-327.
- Ichino, Andrea & Mealli, Fabrizia & Nannicini, Tommaso, 2006. "From Temporary Help Jobs to Permanent Employment: What Can We Learn from Matching Estimators and their Sensitivity?," IZA Discussion Papers 2149, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Deng, Hengshan & Huang, Jikun & Xu, Zhigang & Rozelle, Scott, 2010. "Policy support and emerging farmer professional cooperatives in rural China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 495-507, December.
- Phil Simmons & Paul Winters & Ian Patrick, 2005. "An analysis of contract farming in East Java, Bali, and Lombok, Indonesia," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 33(s3), pages 513-525, November.
- Tommaso Nannicini, 2009.
"A simulation-based sensitivity analysis for matching estimators,"
Italian Stata Users' Group Meetings 2008
05, Stata Users Group.
- Tommaso Nannicini, 2007. "Simulation-based sensitivity analysis for matching estimators," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 7(3), pages 334-350, September.
- Tommaso Nannicini, 2006. "A Simulation-Based Sensitivity Analysis for Matching Estimators," North American Stata Users' Group Meetings 2006 6, Stata Users Group.
- Sexton, Richard J. & Iskow, Julie, 1993. "What Do We Know About the Economic Efficiency of Cooperatives: An Evaluative Survey," Journal of Agricultural Cooperation, National Council of Farmer Cooperatives, vol. 8.
- Paul Winters & Phil Simmons & Ian Patrick, 2005. "Evaluation of a Hybrid Seed Contract between Smallholders and a Multinational Company in East Java, Indonesia," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(1), pages 62-89.
- Bart Minten & Lalaina Randrianarison & Johan Swinnen, 2007. "Spillovers from high-value agriculture for exports on land use in developing countries: evidence from Madagascar," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 37(2-3), pages 265-275, 09.
- Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 2003.
"Does Matching Overcome Lalonde's Critique of Nonexperimental Estimators?,"
University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity Working Papers
20035, University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity.
- A. Smith, Jeffrey & E. Todd, Petra, 2005. "Does matching overcome LaLonde's critique of nonexperimental estimators?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 125(1-2), pages 305-353.
- Michael White & John Killeen, 2002. "The effect of careers guidance for employed adults on continuing education: assessing the importance of attitudinal information," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 165(1), pages 83-95.
- Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009.
"Reforms, Globalization, and Endogenous Agricultural Structures,"
111th Seminar, June 26-27, 2009, Canterbury, UK
52802, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Johan F.M. Swinnen, 2009. "Reforms, globalization, and endogenous agricultural structures," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(s1), pages 719-732, November.
- James Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 1998.
"Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data,"
NBER Working Papers
6699, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 1998. "Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1017-1098, September.
- Warning, Matthew & Key, Nigel, 2002. "The Social Performance and Distributional Consequences of Contract Farming: An Equilibrium Analysis of the Arachide de Bouche Program in Senegal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 255-263, February.
- Sabates-Wheeler, Rachel, 2002. "Farm Strategy, Self-Selection and Productivity: Can Small Farming Groups Offer Production Benefits to Farmers in Post-Socialist Romania?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(10), pages 1737-1753, October.
- Bernard, Tanguy & Spielman, David J., 2009. "Reaching the rural poor through rural producer organizations? A study of agricultural marketing cooperatives in Ethiopia," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 60-69, February.
- Johann Kirsten & Kurt Sartorius, 2002.
"Linking agribusiness and small-scale farmers in developing countries: Is there a new role for contract farming?,"
Development Southern Africa,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(4), pages 503-529.
- Kirsten, Johann F. & Sartorius, Kurt, 2002. "Linking Agribusiness And Small-Scale Farmers In Developing Countries: Is There A New Role For Contract Farming?," Working Papers 18025, University of Pretoria, Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development.
- Christin Schipmann & Matin Qaim, 2010. "Spillovers from modern supply chains to traditional markets: product innovation and adoption by smallholders," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 41(3-4), pages 361-371, 05.
- Jia, Xiangping & Huang, Jikun, 2011.
"Contractual arrangements between farmer cooperatives and buyers in China,"
Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 656-666.
- Jia, Xiangping & Huang, Jikun, 2011. "Contractual arrangements between farmer cooperatives and buyers in China," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 655-665, October.
- Reardon, Thomas & Barrett, Christopher B. & Berdegué, Julio A. & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Agrifood Industry Transformation and Small Farmers in Developing Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 1717-1727, November.
- Heckman, James J & Ichimura, Hidehiko & Todd, Petra, 1998. "Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 65(2), pages 261-94, April.
- Hans Binswanger, 1980. "Attitudes toward risk: Experimental measurement in rural india," Artefactual Field Experiments 00009, The Field Experiments Website.
- Key, Nigel & Runsten, David, 1999. "Contract Farming, Smallholders, and Rural Development in Latin America: The Organization of Agroprocessing Firms and the Scale of Outgrower Production," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 381-401, February.
- Murray Fulton & Konstantinos Giannakas, 2001. "Organizational Commitment in a Mixed Oligopoly: Agricultural Cooperatives and Investor-Owned Firms," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 83(5), pages 1258-1265.
- Marijke D'haese & Wim Verbeke & Guido Van Huylenbroeck & Johann Kirsten & Luc D'haese, 2005. "New Institutional Arrangements for Rural Development: The Case of Local Woolgrowers' Associations in the Transkei Area, South Africa," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(8), pages 1444-1466.
- Miyata, Sachiko & Minot, Nicholas & Hu, Dinghuan, 2009.
"Impact of Contract Farming on Income: Linking Small Farmers, Packers, and Supermarkets in China,"
Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 1781-1790, November.
- Miyata, Sachiko & Minot, Nicholas & Hu, Dinghuan, 2007. "Impact of contract farming on income: Linking small farmers, packers, and supermarket in China," IFPRI discussion papers 742, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Manski, Charles F, 1993.
"Identification of Endogenous Social Effects: The Reflection Problem,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(3), pages 531-42, July.
- Govereh, Jones & Jayne, T. S., 2003. "Cash cropping and food crop productivity: synergies or trade-offs?," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 28(1), pages 39-50, January.
- Felix Meier zu Selhausen & Erik Stam, 2013. "Husbands and Wives. The powers and perils of participation in a microfinance cooperative for female entrepreneurs," Working Papers 13-10, Utrecht School of Economics.
- Yang, Huan & Klerkx, Laurens & Leeuwis, Cees, 2014. "Functions and limitations of farmer cooperatives as innovation intermediaries: Findings from China," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 127(C), pages 115-125.
- Prof dr Erik Stam & Felix Meier zu Selhausen, MSc MA, 2014. "Husbands and Wives. The powers and perils of participation in a microfinance cooperative for female entrepreneurs," Working Papers 2014/20, Maastricht School of Management.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.