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Investor activism and takeovers

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  • Greenwood, Robin
  • Schor, Michael
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    Abstract

    Recent work documents large positive abnormal returns when a hedge fund announces activist intentions regarding a publicly listed firm. We show that these returns are largely explained by the ability of activists to force target firms into a takeover. For a comprehensive sample of 13D filings by portfolio investors between 1993 and 2006, announcement returns and long-term abnormal returns are high for targets that are ultimately acquired, but not detectably different from zero for firms that remain independent. Firms targeted by activists are more likely than control firms to get acquired. Finally, activist investors' portfolios perform poorly during a period in which market wide takeover interest declined.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Financial Economics.

    Volume (Year): 92 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 3 (June)
    Pages: 362-375

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:92:y:2009:i:3:p:362-375

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505576

    Related research

    Keywords: Investor activism Event studies Hedge funds Corporate control;

    References

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    1. Karpoff, Jonathan M. & Malatesta, Paul H. & Walkling, Ralph A., 1996. "Corporate governance and shareholder initiatives: Empirical evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 365-395, November.
    2. Gillan, Stuart L. & Starks, Laura T., 2000. "Corporate governance proposals and shareholder activism: the role of institutional investors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 275-305, August.
    3. Mikkelson, Wayne H. & Ruback, Richard S., 1985. "An empirical analysis of the interfirm equity investment process," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 523-553, December.
    4. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1986. "Large Shareholders and Corporate Control," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(3), pages 461-88, June.
    5. April Klein & Emanuel Zur, 2009. "Entrepreneurial Shareholder Activism: Hedge Funds and Other Private Investors," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(1), pages 187-229, 02.
    6. Daniel, Kent, et al, 1997. " Measuring Mutual Fund Performance with Characteristic-Based Benchmarks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 1035-58, July.
    7. Alon Brav & Wei Jiang & Frank Partnoy & Randall Thomas, 2008. "Hedge Fund Activism, Corporate Governance, and Firm Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(4), pages 1729-1775, 08.
    8. Sara B. Moeller & Frederik P. Schlingemann & René M. Stulz, 2005. "Wealth Destruction on a Massive Scale? A Study of Acquiring-Firm Returns in the Recent Merger Wave," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(2), pages 757-782, 04.
    9. Martijn Cremers & Vinay Nair & Kose John, 2005. "Takeovers and the Cross-Section of Returns," Yale School of Management Working Papers amz2393, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Sep 2007.
    10. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 2003. "Stock market driven acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(3), pages 295-311, December.
    11. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
    12. Sanford J. Grossman & Oliver D. Hart, 1980. "Takeover Bids, the Free-Rider Problem, and the Theory of the Corporation," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 11(1), pages 42-64, Spring.
    13. Roll, Richard, 1986. "The Hubris Hypothesis of Corporate Takeovers," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(2), pages 197-216, April.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Alex Edmans, 2013. "Blockholders and Corporate Governance," NBER Working Papers 19573, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Dirk Jenter & Katharina Lewellen, 2011. "CEO Preferences and Acquisitions," CESifo Working Paper Series 3681, CESifo Group Munich.
    3. Lin, Ji-Chai & Stephens, Clifford P. & Wu, YiLin, 2014. "Limited attention, share repurchases, and takeover risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 283-301.
    4. Mark Mietzner & Denis Schweizer, 2014. "Hedge funds versus private equity funds as shareholder activists in Germany — differences in value creation," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer, vol. 38(2), pages 181-208, April.
    5. Barbara Katz & Joel Owen, 2013. "Activism's Impact on Diversified Investors and the Market," Working Papers 13-01, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
    6. Alex Edmans & Vivian W. Fang & Emanuel Zur, 2013. "The Effect of Liquidity on Governance," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 26(6), pages 1443-1482.
    7. Bebchuk, Lucian A. & Weisbach, Michael S., 2009. "The State of Corporate Governance Research," Working Paper Series 2009-21, Ohio State University, Charles A. Dice Center for Research in Financial Economics.
    8. Bradley, Michael & Brav, Alon & Goldstein, Itay & Jiang, Wei, 2010. "Activist arbitrage: A study of open-ending attempts of closed-end funds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 1-19, January.
    9. Gantchev, Nickolay, 2013. "The costs of shareholder activism: Evidence from a sequential decision model," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(3), pages 610-631.
    10. Renneboog, Luc & Szilagyi, Peter G., 2011. "The role of shareholder proposals in corporate governance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 167-188, February.
    11. Hartzell, Jay C. & Sun, Libo & Titman, Sheridan, 2014. "Institutional investors as monitors of corporate diversification decisions: Evidence from real estate investment trusts," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 61-72.
    12. Brav, Alon & Mathews, Richmond D., 2011. "Empty voting and the efficiency of corporate governance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 289-307, February.
    13. : Jana P. Fidrmuc & Peter Roosenboom & Richard Paap & Tim Teunissen, 2012. "One size Does Not Fit All: Selling Firms to Private Equity Versus Strategic Acquirers," Working Papers wpn12-02, Warwick Business School, Finance Group.
    14. Bajo, Emanuele & Barbi, Massimiliano & Bigelli, Marco & Hillier, David, 2013. "The role of institutional investors in public-to-private transactions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4327-4336.
    15. Fidrmuc, Jana P. & Roosenboom, Peter & Paap, Richard & Teunissen, Tim, 2012. "One size does not fit all: Selling firms to private equity versus strategic acquirers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 828-848.

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