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Investor activism and takeovers

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  • Greenwood, Robin
  • Schor, Michael
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    Abstract

    Recent work documents large positive abnormal returns when a hedge fund announces activist intentions regarding a publicly listed firm. We show that these returns are largely explained by the ability of activists to force target firms into a takeover. For a comprehensive sample of 13D filings by portfolio investors between 1993 and 2006, announcement returns and long-term abnormal returns are high for targets that are ultimately acquired, but not detectably different from zero for firms that remain independent. Firms targeted by activists are more likely than control firms to get acquired. Finally, activist investors' portfolios perform poorly during a period in which market wide takeover interest declined.

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    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VBX-4VTVR4K-1/2/06e5d9a5c579fb050f560f413d92657d
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Financial Economics.

    Volume (Year): 92 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 3 (June)
    Pages: 362-375

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:92:y:2009:i:3:p:362-375

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/505576

    Related research

    Keywords: Investor activism Event studies Hedge funds Corporate control;

    References

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    1. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 2003. "Stock market driven acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(3), pages 295-311, December.
    2. Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1986. "Large Shareholders and Corporate Control," Scholarly Articles 3606237, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    3. K. J. Martijn Cremers & Vinay B. Nair & Kose John, 2009. "Takeovers and the Cross-Section of Returns," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(4), pages 1409-1445, April.
    4. Gillan, Stuart L. & Starks, Laura T., 2000. "Corporate governance proposals and shareholder activism: the role of institutional investors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 275-305, August.
    5. Alon Brav & Wei Jiang & Frank Partnoy & Randall Thomas, 2008. "Hedge Fund Activism, Corporate Governance, and Firm Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 63(4), pages 1729-1775, 08.
    6. Daniel, Kent, et al, 1997. " Measuring Mutual Fund Performance with Characteristic-Based Benchmarks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(3), pages 1035-58, July.
    7. Sara B. Moeller & Frederik P. Schlingemann & Rene M. Stulz, 2004. "Wealth Destruction on a Massive Scale? A Study of Acquiring-Firm Returns in the Recent Merger Wave," NBER Working Papers 10200, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. April Klein & Emanuel Zur, 2009. "Entrepreneurial Shareholder Activism: Hedge Funds and Other Private Investors," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 64(1), pages 187-229, 02.
    9. Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 1993. "Common risk factors in the returns on stocks and bonds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 3-56, February.
    10. Mikkelson, Wayne H. & Ruback, Richard S., 1985. "An empirical analysis of the interfirm equity investment process," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 523-553, December.
    11. Karpoff, Jonathan M. & Malatesta, Paul H. & Walkling, Ralph A., 1996. "Corporate governance and shareholder initiatives: Empirical evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 365-395, November.
    12. Roll, Richard, 1986. "The Hubris Hypothesis of Corporate Takeovers," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(2), pages 197-216, April.
    13. Sanford J. Grossman & Oliver D. Hart, 1980. "Takeover Bids, the Free-Rider Problem, and the Theory of the Corporation," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 11(1), pages 42-64, Spring.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Dirk Jenter & Katharina Lewellen, 2011. "CEO Preferences and Acquisitions," CESifo Working Paper Series 3681, CESifo Group Munich.
    2. Lucian A. Bebchuk & Michael S. Weisbach, 2010. "The State of Corporate Governance Research," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 23(3), pages 939-961, March.
    3. Bajo, Emanuele & Barbi, Massimiliano & Bigelli, Marco & Hillier, David, 2013. "The role of institutional investors in public-to-private transactions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4327-4336.
    4. Alex Edmans, 2013. "Blockholders and Corporate Governance," NBER Working Papers 19573, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Brav, Alon & Mathews, Richmond D., 2011. "Empty voting and the efficiency of corporate governance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 289-307, February.
    6. Mark Mietzner & Denis Schweizer, 2014. "Hedge funds versus private equity funds as shareholder activists in Germany — differences in value creation," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer, vol. 38(2), pages 181-208, April.
    7. Alex Edmans & Vivian W. Fang & Emanuel Zur, 2011. "The Effect of Liquidity on Governance," NBER Working Papers 17567, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. : Jana P. Fidrmuc & Peter Roosenboom & Richard Paap & Tim Teunissen, 2012. "One size Does Not Fit All: Selling Firms to Private Equity Versus Strategic Acquirers," Working Papers wpn12-02, Warwick Business School, Finance Group.
    9. Barbara Katz & Joel Owen, 2013. "Activism's Impact on Diversified Investors and the Market," Working Papers 13-01, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
    10. Lin, Ji-Chai & Stephens, Clifford P. & Wu, YiLin, 2014. "Limited attention, share repurchases, and takeover risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 283-301.
    11. Renneboog, Luc & Szilagyi, Peter G., 2011. "The role of shareholder proposals in corporate governance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 167-188, February.
    12. Gantchev, Nickolay, 2013. "The costs of shareholder activism: Evidence from a sequential decision model," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(3), pages 610-631.
    13. Bradley, Michael & Brav, Alon & Goldstein, Itay & Jiang, Wei, 2010. "Activist arbitrage: A study of open-ending attempts of closed-end funds," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 1-19, January.
    14. Fidrmuc, Jana P. & Roosenboom, Peter & Paap, Richard & Teunissen, Tim, 2012. "One size does not fit all: Selling firms to private equity versus strategic acquirers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 828-848.
    15. Hartzell, Jay C. & Sun, Libo & Titman, Sheridan, 2014. "Institutional investors as monitors of corporate diversification decisions: Evidence from real estate investment trusts," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 61-72.

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