Why do firms denominate bank loans in foreign currencies? Empirical evidence from Canada and U.K
AbstractWe examine the determinants of the decision to raise bank loans in foreign currency, based on two samples of syndicated loans raised by U.K. and Canadian firms. By using the percentage of sales in the U.S. market for a firm, we proxy the exposure of the firm's cash flows to the U.S. dollar. We find strong evidence that firms which have substantial foreign sales are the ones that have a higher probability of borrowing in that foreign currency. In particular, we show that firms that have a significant portion of their sales in the U.S., will tend to hedge their exposure by borrowing in U.S. dollars. This result is consistent with the notion that foreign currency loans serve as a natural hedging instrument. Our results are also economically significant; they imply that a one standard deviation increase in the ratio of foreign sales in the U.S. increases the probability of borrowing in U.S. dollars by 23%. For the first time in the literature, we show that currency choice should be considered an integral feature of the loan contract, given interdependencies that exist between currency choice and other loan contract terms such as maturity and secured status. Our results show that maturity and secured status both affect the currency choice of the loan, however the manner in which they impact the currency choice varies between countries and is dependent on borrower characteristics.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Economics and Business.
Volume (Year): 62 (2010)
Issue (Month): 6 (November)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jeconbus
Foreign currency denominated loans Natural hedge Loan contract terms;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Dooley, Michael P & Isard, Peter, 1980. "Capital Controls, Political Risk, and Deviations from Interest-Rate Parity," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(2), pages 370-84, April.
- Melnik, Arie & Plaut, Steven, 1986. " Loan Commitment Contracts, Terms of Lending, and Credit Allocation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 41(2), pages 425-35, June.
- Amrit Judge, 2006. "Why and How UK Firms Hedge," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 12(3), pages 407-441.
- Henk Berkman & Michael E. Bradbury, 1996. "Empirical Evidence on the Corporate Use of Derivatives," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 25(2), Summer.
- Esho, Neil & Sharpe, Ian G. & Webster, Kristian H., 2007. "Hedging and choice of currency denomination in international syndicated loan markets," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 195-212, April.
- Booth, James R. & Booth, Lena Chua, 2006. "Loan Collateral Decisions and Corporate Borrowing Costs," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(1), pages 67-90, February.
- Warner, Jerold B, 1977. "Bankruptcy Costs: Some Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 337-47, May.
- Froot, Kenneth A & Scharfstein, David S & Stein, Jeremy C, 1993.
" Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 48(5), pages 1629-58, December.
- Kenneth A. Froot & David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 1992. "Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies," NBER Working Papers 4084, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dennis, Steven & Nandy, Debarshi & Sharpe, Lan G., 2000. "The Determinants of Contract Terms in Bank Revolving Credit Agreements," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 35(01), pages 87-110, March.
- Mayers, David & Smith, Clifford W, Jr, 1982. "On the Corporate Demand for Insurance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 55(2), pages 281-96, April.
- Frenkel, Jacob A & Levich, Richard M, 1975. "Covered Interest Arbitrage: Unexploited Profits?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 83(2), pages 325-38, April.
- Aron A. Gottesman & Gordon S. Roberts, 2004. "Maturity and Corporate Loan Pricing," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 39(1), pages 55-77, 02.
- Stulz, René M., 1984. "Optimal Hedging Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 19(02), pages 127-140, June.
- Amemiya, Takeshi, 1979. "The Estimation of a Simultaneous-Equation Tobit Model," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 20(1), pages 169-81, February.
- Alan C Shapiro, 1984. "The Impact of Taxation on the Currency-of-Denomination Decision for Long-Term Foreign Borrowing and Lending," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 15(1), pages 15-25, March.
- Levi, Maurice D, 1977. "Taxation and "Abnormal" International Capital Flows," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 85(3), pages 635-46, June.
- Nance, Deana R & Smith, Clifford W, Jr & Smithson, Charles W, 1993. " On the Determinants of Corporate Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 267-84, March.
- Aliber, Robert Z, 1973. "The Interest Rate Parity Theorem: A Reinterpretation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(6), pages 1451-59, Nov.-Dec..
- Aron A. Gottesman & Gordon S. Roberts, 2007. "Loan Rates and Collateral," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 42(3), pages 401-427, 08.
- Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
- Zimmerman, Jerold L., 1983. "Taxes and firm size," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 119-149, April.
- Tom Aabo, 2006. "The Importance of Corporate Foreign Debt in Managing Exchange Rate Exposures in Non-Financial Companies," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 12(4), pages 633-649.
- Ephraim Clark & Amrit Judge, 2008. "The Determinants of Foreign Currency Hedging: Does Foreign Currency Debt Induce a Bias?," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 14(3), pages 445-469.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.