Cross-border private equity syndication: Institutional context and learning
AbstractPrivate equity (PE) has become an increasingly international phenomenon but there is a lack of research that looks at the process by which PE firms invest across borders. We aim to fill this gap in the literature by examining the role of institutional context and organizational learning as determinants of cross-border PE syndication. We examine these issues by studying the international expansion by later-stage UK PE investors into continental Europe over the period 1990 to 2006. Our results indicate that institutional context (in terms of the number of PE firms in the local environment and the presence of investment bankers in the local market) and organizational learning (in terms of the PE firm's experience in the host country; the PE firm's multinational experience; and the number of investment managers per portfolio company; but not the presence of local offices) are significantly related to the use of cross-border syndicates. Implications for theory and practice are suggested.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Business Venturing.
Volume (Year): 26 (2011)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbusvent
Private equity Institutional theory Organizational learning Internationalization;
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- John Armour & Douglas Cumming, 2006. "The legislative road to Silicon Valley," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(4), pages 596-635, October.
- Froot, Kenneth A., 1989. "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation with Cross-Sectional Dependence and Heteroskedasticity in Financial Data," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 24(03), pages 333-355, September.
- Wright, Mike & Thompson, Steve & Robbie, Ken, 1992. "Venture capital and management-led, leveraged buy-outs: A European perspective," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 47-71, January.
- X Martin & R Salomon, 2003. "Knowledge transfer capacity and its implications for the theory of the multinational corporation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 34(4), pages 356-373, July.
- Bottazzi, L. & Da Rin, M. & Hellmann, T., 2008.
"Who are the active investors? Evidence from venture capital,"
Open Access publications from Tilburg University
urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-305977, Tilburg University.
- Bottazzi, Laura & Da Rin, Marco & Hellmann, Thomas, 2008. "Who are the active investors?: Evidence from venture capital," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(3), pages 488-512, September.
- L. Bottazzi & M. Da Rin & T. Hellmann, 2007. "Who are the active investors? Evidence from Venture Capital," Working Papers 611, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
- Rosalie L Tung & Arjen van Witteloostuijn, 2008. "From the Editors: what makes a study sufficiently international?," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 39(2), pages 180-183, March.
- Sophie Manigart & Koen De Waele* & Mike Wright & Ken Robbie & Philippe Desbrières & Harry Sapienza & Amy Beekman, 2000.
"Venture capitalists, investment appraisal and accounting information: a comparative study of the USA, UK, France, Belgium and Holland,"
European Financial Management,
European Financial Management Association, vol. 6(3), pages 389-403.
- Philippe Desbrières & Sophie Manigart & Koen De Waele & Mike Wright & Ken Robbie & Harry Sapienza & Amy Beekman, 1999. "Venture capitalists, investment appraisal and accounting information: a comparative study of the US, UK, France, Belgium and Holland," Working Papers FARGO 0991102, Université de Bourgogne - Crego EA 7317/Fargo (Research center in Finance,organizational ARchitecture and GOvernance).
- Kanniainen, Vesa & Keuschnigg, Christian, 2003.
"The optimal portfolio of start-up firms in venture capital finance,"
Journal of Corporate Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 9(5), pages 521-534, November.
- Kanniainen, V. & Keuschnigg, C., 2000. "The Optimal Portfolio of Start-up Firms in Venture Capital Finance," University of Helsinki, Department of Economics 486, Department of Economics.
- Vesa Kanniainen & Christian Keuschnigg, 2000. "The Optimal Portfolio of Start-Up Firms in Venture Capital Finance," CESifo Working Paper Series 381, CESifo Group Munich.
- Philippe Desbrières & Sophie Manigart & Koen De Waele & Mike Wright & Ken Robbie & Harry Sapienza & Amy Beekman, 2002.
"Determinants of required return in venture capital investments:A five country study,"
Working Papers FARGO
1020701, Université de Bourgogne - Crego EA 7317/Fargo (Research center in Finance,organizational ARchitecture and GOvernance).
- Manigart, Sophie & De Waele, Koen & Wright, Mike & Robbie, Ken & Desbrieres, Philippe & Sapienza, Harry J. & Beekman, Amy, 2002. "Determinants of required return in venture capital investments: a five-country study," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 291-312, July.
- Bygrave, William D., 1987. "Syndicated investments by venture capital firms: A networking perspective," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 139-154.
- Vernon, Raymond, 1979. "The Product Cycle Hypothesis in a New International Environment," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 41(4), pages 255-67, November.
- Casamatta, Catherine & Haritchabalet, Carole, 2007.
"Experience, Screening and Syndication in Venture Capital Investments,"
IDEI Working Papers
443, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Casamatta, Catherine & Haritchabalet, Carole, 2007. "Experience, screening and syndication in venture capital investments," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 368-398, July.
- Gorman, Michael & Sahlman, William A., 1989. "What do venture capitalists do?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 231-248, July.
- Yael V. Hochberg & Alexander Ljungqvist & Yang Lu, 2007. "Whom You Know Matters: Venture Capital Networks and Investment Performance," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(1), pages 251-301, 02.
- Kaplan, Steven N. & Martel, Frederic & Stromberg, Per, 2007. "How do legal differences and experience affect financial contracts?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 273-311, July.
- Miguel Meuleman & Mike Wright & Sophie Manigart & Andy Lockett, 2009. "Private Equity Syndication: Agency Costs, Reputation and Collaboration," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(5-6), pages 616-644.
- Joshua Lerner, 1994. "The Syndication of Venture Capital Investments," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 23(3), Fall.
- Sapienza, Harry J. & Manigart, Sophie & Vermeir, Wim, 1996. "Venture capitalist governance and value added in four countries," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(6), pages 439-469, November.
- Josh Lerner & Antoinette Schoar, 2005. "Does Legal Enforcement Affect Financial Transactions? The Contractual Channel in Private Equity," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 120(1), pages 223-246, January.
- Bruce Kogut & Harbir Singh, 1988. "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 19(3), pages 411-432, September.
- Jeng, Leslie A. & Wells, Philippe C., 2000. "The determinants of venture capital funding: evidence across countries," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 241-289, September.
- Cumming, Douglas & Fleming, Grant & Schwienbacher, Armin, 2006. "Legality and venture capital exits," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 214-245, January.
- Douglas Cumming & Sofia Johan, 2007.
"Advice and monitoring in venture finance,"
Financial Markets and Portfolio Management,
Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 3-43, March.
- Black, Bernard S. & Gilson, Ronald J., 1998. "Venture capital and the structure of capital markets: banks versus stock markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 243-277, March.
- Mike Wright & Andy Lockett, 2003. "The Structure and Management of Alliances: Syndication in the Venture Capital Industry," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(8), pages 2073-2102, December.
- Humphery-Jenner, Mark & Suchard, Jo-Ann, 2013. "Foreign VCs and venture success: Evidence from China," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 16-35.
- Dai, Na & Jo, Hoje & Kassicieh, Sul, 2012. "Cross-border venture capital investments in Asia: Selection and exit performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 27(6), pages 666-684.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.