Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Economies of scope in financial services: A DEA efficiency analysis of the US insurance industry

Contents:

Author Info

  • Cummins, J. David
  • Weiss, Mary A.
  • Xie, Xiaoying
  • Zi, Hongmin

Abstract

This paper investigates economies of scope in the US insurance industry over the period 1993-2006. We test the conglomeration hypothesis, which holds that firms can optimize by diversifying across businesses, versus the strategic focus hypothesis, which holds that firms optimize by focusing on core businesses. We analyze whether it is advantageous for insurers to offer both life-health and property-liability insurance or to specialize in one major industry segment. We estimate cost, revenue, and profit efficiency utilizing data envelopment analysis (DEA) and test for scope economies by regressing efficiency scores on control variables and an indicator for strategic focus. Property-liability insurers realize cost scope economies, but they are more than offset by revenue scope diseconomies. Life-health insurers realize both cost and revenue scope diseconomies. Hence, strategic focus is superior to conglomeration in the insurance industry.

Download Info

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/B6VCY-4YHNYY0-1/2/4a5c1f7b1247ded1c0629b5b40bb9adc
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Banking & Finance.

Volume (Year): 34 (2010)
Issue (Month): 7 (July)
Pages: 1525-1539

as in new window
Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:34:y:2010:i:7:p:1525-1539

Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf

Related research

Keywords: Scope economies Conglomeration Strategic focus Insurance Efficiency Data envelopment analysis;

References

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
as in new window
  1. Brown, Jeffrey, 2000. "Does the Internet Make Markets More Competitive? Evidence from the Life Insurance Industry," Working Paper Series rwp00-007, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  2. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-29, May.
  3. Allen N. Berger & Rebecca S. Demsetz & Philip E. Strahan, 1998. "The consolidation of the financial services industry: causes, consequences, and implications for the future," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1998-46, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  4. J. David Cummins & Xiaoying Xie, 2009. "Market values and efficiency in US insurer acquisitions and divestitures," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 35(2), pages 128-155.
  5. Schmid, Markus M. & Walter, Ingo, 2009. "Do financial conglomerates create or destroy economic value?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 193-216, April.
  6. David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 1997. "The Dark Side of Internal Capital Markets: Divisional Rent-Seeking and Inefficient Investment," NBER Working Papers 5969, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Andre P. Liebenberg & David W. Sommer, 2008. "Effects of Corporate Diversification: Evidence From the Property-Liability Insurance Industry," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 75(4), pages 893-919.
  8. Allen N. Berger & J. David Cummins & Mary A. Weiss, 1995. "The Coexistence of Multiple Distributions Systems for Financial Services: The Case of Property-Liability Insurance," Center for Financial Institutions Working Papers 95-13, Wharton School Center for Financial Institutions, University of Pennsylvania.
  9. Servaes, Henri, 1996. " The Value of Diversification during the Conglomerate Merger Wave," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(4), pages 1201-25, September.
  10. Teece, David J., 1980. "Economies of scope and the scope of the enterprise," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 223-247, September.
  11. Robert H. Gertner & David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 1994. "Internal versus External Capital Markets," NBER Working Papers 4776, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Allen N. Berger & David B. Humphrey, 1992. "Measurement and Efficiency Issues in Commercial Banking," NBER Chapters, in: Output Measurement in the Service Sectors, pages 245-300 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  13. Panzar, John C & Willig, Robert D, 1977. "Economies of Scale in Multi-Output Production," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 91(3), pages 481-93, August.
  14. Berger, Allen N. & Cummins, J. David & Weiss, Mary A. & Zi, Hongmin, 2000. "Conglomeration versus Strategic Focus: Evidence from the Insurance Industry," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 323-362, October.
  15. Eling, Martin & Luhnen, Michael, 2010. "Efficiency in the international insurance industry: A cross-country comparison," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1497-1509, July.
  16. Rajiv D. Banker, 1993. "Maximum Likelihood, Consistency and Data Envelopment Analysis: A Statistical Foundation," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 39(10), pages 1265-1273, October.
  17. Cummins, J. David & Xie, Xiaoying, 2008. "Mergers and acquisitions in the US property-liability insurance industry: Productivity and efficiency effects," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 30-55, January.
  18. Laeven, Luc & Levine, Ross, 2005. "Is There a Diversification Discount in Financial Conglomerates?," CEPR Discussion Papers 5121, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  19. Yukiko Hirao & Tomoo Inoue, 2004. "On the Cost Structure of the Japanese Property-Casualty Insurance Industry," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 71(3), pages 501-530.
  20. Panzar, John C & Willig, Robert D, 1981. "Economies of Scope," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(2), pages 268-72, May.
  21. Andrew M. Yuengert, 1993. "The measurement of efficiency in life insurance estimates of a mixed normal-gamma error model," Research Paper 9308, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  22. R. D. Banker & A. Charnes & W. W. Cooper, 1984. "Some Models for Estimating Technical and Scale Inefficiencies in Data Envelopment Analysis," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 30(9), pages 1078-1092, September.
  23. Bernhard Mahlberg & Thomas Url, . "Effects of the Single Market on the Austrian Insurance Industry," WIFO Working Papers 97, WIFO.
  24. B. Elango & Yu-Luen Ma & Nat Pope, 2008. "An Investigation Into the Diversification-Performance Relationship in the U.S. Property-Liability Insurance Industry," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 75(3), pages 567-591.
  25. Berger, Allen N. & Humphrey, David B. & Pulley, Lawrence B., 1996. "Do consumers pay for one-stop banking? Evidence from an alternative revenue function," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(9), pages 1601-1621, November.
  26. Banker, Rajiv D & Maindiratta, Ajay, 1988. "Nonparametric Analysis of Technical and Allocative Efficiencies in Production," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(6), pages 1315-32, November.
  27. Banker, Rajiv D. & Thrall, R. M., 1992. "Estimation of returns to scale using data envelopment analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 74-84, October.
  28. Cummins, J. David & Weiss, Mary A., 1993. "Measuring cost efficiency in the property-liability insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 463-481, April.
  29. Segal, Dan, 2003. " A Multi-product Cost Study of the U.S. Life Insurance Industry," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 169-86, March.
  30. Fenn, Paul & Vencappa, Dev & Diacon, Stephen & Klumpes, Paul & O'Brien, Chris, 2008. "Market structure and the efficiency of European insurance companies: A stochastic frontier analysis," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 86-100, January.
  31. Kittelsen,S.A.C., 1999. "Monte Carlo simulations of DEA efficiency measures and hypothesis tests," Memorandum 09/1999, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
  32. Comment, Robert & Jarrell, Gregg A., 1995. "Corporate focus and stock returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 67-87, January.
  33. Yuengert, Andrew M., 1993. "The measurement of efficiency in life insurance: Estimates of a mixed normal-gamma error model," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(2-3), pages 483-496, April.
  34. Toivanen, Otto, 1997. "Economies of scale and scope in the Finnish non-life insurance industry," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(6), pages 759-779, June.
  35. Chaplinsky, Susan & Erwin, Gayle R., 2009. "Great expectations: Banks as equity underwriters," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 380-389, February.
  36. Leverty, J. Tyler & Grace, Martin F., 2010. "The robustness of output measures in property-liability insurance efficiency studies," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1510-1524, July.
  37. Charnes, A. & Cooper, W. W. & Rhodes, E., 1978. "Measuring the efficiency of decision making units," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 2(6), pages 429-444, November.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

Citations

Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
as in new window

Cited by:
  1. Alfred A. Haug & Vincent C. Blackburn, 2013. "Efficiency Aspects of Government Secondary School Finances in New South Wales: Results from a Two-Stage Double-Bootstrap DEA at the School Level," Working Papers 1316, University of Otago, Department of Economics, revised Nov 2013.
  2. J.A. Bikker, 2012. "Performance of the life insurance industry under pressure: efficiency, competition and consolidation," Working Papers 12-19, Utrecht School of Economics.
  3. Akhigbe, Aigbe & Whyte, Ann Marie, 2012. "Does the use of stock incentives influence the payout policy of financial institutions?," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(1), pages 63-71.
  4. Huang, Wei & Eling, Martin, 2013. "An efficiency comparison of the non-life insurance industry in the BRIC countries," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 226(3), pages 577-591.
  5. Jeungbo Shim, 2011. "Mergers & Acquisitions, Diversification and Performance in the U.S. Property-Liability Insurance Industry," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer, vol. 39(3), pages 119-144, June.
  6. Kim Economides & Alfred A. Haug & Joe McIntyre, 2013. "Are Courts Slow? Exposing and Measuring the Invisible Determinants of Case Disposition Time," Working Papers 1317, University of Otago, Department of Economics, revised Nov 2013.
  7. Norashikin Ismail Author_Email: & Prof Dr Datuk Syed Othman Alhabshi & Prof Obiyathulla Bacha, 2011. "Organizational Form And Efficiency: The Coexistence Of Family Takaful And Life Insurance In Malaysia," 2nd International Conference on Business and Economic Research (2nd ICBER 2011) Proceeding 2011-306, Conference Master Resources.
  8. Lau, Kwok Hung, 2013. "Measuring distribution efficiency of a retail network through data envelopment analysis," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 146(2), pages 598-611.
  9. Kolokolova, Olga, 2011. "Strategic behavior within families of hedge funds," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(7), pages 1645-1662, July.
  10. Hela Miniaoui & Anissa Chaibi, 2014. "Technical Efficiency of Takaful Industry- A Comparative Study of Malaysia and GCC Countries," Working Papers 2014-055, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.

Lists

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

Statistics

Access and download statistics

Corrections

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:34:y:2010:i:7:p:1525-1539. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.