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Extending the Basel II approach to estimate capital requirements for equity investments

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  • Johnston, Mark
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    Abstract

    Under the Basel II banking regulatory capital regime the capital requirements for credit exposures are calculated using the Asymptotic Single Risk Factor (ASRF) approach. The capital requirement is taken to be the contribution of an exposure to the unexpected loss on the bank's diversified portfolio. Here we extend this approach to calculate capital requirements for equity investments. We show that in the case when asset values have a normal distribution an analytical formula for the unexpected loss contribution may be developed. We show that the capital requirements for equity investments are quite different to those of credit exposures, since equity investments can suffer substantial loss of value even when the underlying company has not defaulted. Unexpected loss is commonly used as a measure of capital requirements, but it ignores the ability of earnings to absorb loss. We propose a definition of capital requirement that recognises the expected earnings on assets, and show how to combine the ASRF model and the Capital Asset Pricing Model to compute this quantity for credit and equity exposures.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Banking & Finance.

    Volume (Year): 33 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 6 (June)
    Pages: 1177-1185

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:33:y:2009:i:6:p:1177-1185

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    Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf

    Related research

    Keywords: Capital allocation Economic capital Equity Basel II ASRF Factor model CAPM;

    References

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    1. William F. Sharpe, 1964. "Capital Asset Prices: A Theory Of Market Equilibrium Under Conditions Of Risk," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 19(3), pages 425-442, 09.
    2. Merton, Robert C., 1973. "On the pricing of corporate debt: the risk structure of interest rates," Working papers 684-73., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    3. Heid, Frank, 2007. "The cyclical effects of the Basel II capital requirements," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(12), pages 3885-3900, December.
    4. Michael B. Gordy, 2002. "A risk-factor model foundation for ratings-based bank capital rules," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2002-55, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    5. Jokipii, Terhi & Milne, Alistair, 2007. "The Cyclical Behaviour of European Bank Capital Buffers," SIFR Research Report Series 56, Institute for Financial Research.
    6. Blum, Jürg M., 2008. "Why 'Basel II' may need a leverage ratio restriction," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1699-1707, August.
    7. Ruthenberg, David & Landskroner, Yoram, 2008. "Loan pricing under Basel II in an imperfectly competitive banking market," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(12), pages 2725-2733, December.
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    Cited by:
    1. Clara Cardone-Riportella & Antonio Trujillo-Ponce & Anahí Briozzo, 2013. "Analyzing the role of mutual guarantee societies on bank capital requirements for small and medium-sized enterprises," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(2), pages 142-159, June.
    2. Cardone-Riportella, Clara & Samaniego-Medina, Reyes & Trujillo-Ponce, Antonio, 2010. "What drives bank securitisation? The Spanish experience," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2639-2651, November.
    3. Balbás, Alejandro & Balbás, Beatriz & Balbás, Raquel, 2010. "CAPM and APT-like models with risk measures," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1166-1174, June.
    4. Matthew C. Chang & Jui-Cheng Hung, 2012. "Can VAR Be Predictive for Regulation? Evidence from the Futures Industry in Taiwan," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(4), pages 147-162, December.
    5. Maskara, Pankaj Kumar, 2010. "Economic value in tranching of syndicated loans," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(5), pages 946-955, May.
    6. Tsai, Ming-Shann & Chen, Lien-Chuan, 2011. "The calculation of capital requirement using Extreme Value Theory," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(1-2), pages 390-395, January.
    7. Uhde, André & Michalak, Tobias C., 2010. "Securitization and systematic risk in European banking: Empirical evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(12), pages 3061-3077, December.

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