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Coping with liability of foreignness: Different learning engagements of entrant firms

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  • Petersen, Bent
  • Pedersen, Torben
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    Abstract

    Much has been written about how international firms create and sustain firm-specific advantages that offset their liability of foreignness. Less attention has been devoted to the question of how international firms reduce their liability of foreignness. It is the contention of this study that as a consequence of managerial discretion, such as willingness to undertake local adaptation, international firms familiarize with foreign markets at different paces. The data from a sample of 494 international firms from Sweden, Denmark, and New Zealand suggest that entrant firms' learning engagement, i.e., the effort and ability to learn how to conduct business in a foreign environment, varies considerably. In particular, adoption of standardized international business routines and unwillingness to adapt products and marketing practices to local markets seem to be associated with a low learning engagement. The data also indicate that a large proportion of the entrant firms has been engaged in preentry learning.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Management.

    Volume (Year): 8 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 3 ()
    Pages: 339-350

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:8:y:2002:i:3:p:339-350

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    Related research

    Keywords: Liability of foreignness Learning engagement Managerial discretion;

    References

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    1. Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 1977. "The Internationalization Process of the Firm—A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 8(1), pages 23-32, March.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Wolfgang Sofka & Joerg Zimmermann, 2007. "Regional Dimensions of Liability of Foreignness: Between a Rock and a Hard Place?," Jena Economic Research Papers 2007-023, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
    2. Jensen, Peter D. Ørberg, 2009. "A learning perspective on the offshoring of advanced services," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 181-193, June.
    3. Sofka, Wolfgang & Zimmermann, Jörg, 2005. "There's no Place Like Home: A Strategic Framework to Overcome Liability of Foreignness in the German Car Market," ZEW Discussion Papers 05-84, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    4. repec:emp:wpaper:ec8-127-i is not listed on IDEAS
    5. de Jong, Gjalt & van Houten, Jerry, 2014. "The impact of MNE cultural diversity on the internationalization-performance relationship," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 313-326.
    6. Elango, B., 2009. "Minimizing effects of 'liability of foreignness': Response strategies of foreign firms in the United States," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 51-62, January.
    7. Denk, Nikola & Kaufmann, Lutz & Roesch, Jan-Frederik, 2012. "Liabilities of Foreignness Revisited: A Review of Contemporary Studies and Recommendations for Future Research," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 322-334.
    8. Ulrich Kaiser & Wolfgang Sofka, 2007. "The Pulse of Liability of Foreignness: Dynamic Legitimacy and Experience Effects in the German Car Market," CIE Discussion Papers 2007-01, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics. Centre for Industrial Economics.
    9. Tobias Schmidt & Wolfgang Sofka, 2005. "Lost in Translation - Empirical Evidence for Liability of Foreignness as Barriers to Knowledge Spillovers," Industrial Organization 0512012, EconWPA.
    10. repec:emp:wpaper:ec8-126-i is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Sofka, Wolfgang & Zimmermann, Jörg, 2008. "Regional economic stress as moderator of liability of foreignness," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 155-172, June.
    12. Sethi, Deepak & Judge, William, 2009. "Reappraising liabilities of foreignness within an integrated perspective of the costs and benefits of doing business abroad," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 404-416, August.
    13. Chelekis, Jessica & Mudambi, Susan M., 2010. "MNCs and micro-entrepreneurship in emerging economies: The case of Avon in the Amazon," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 412-424, December.
    14. Joardar, Arpita & Kostova, Tatiana & Ravlin, Elizabeth C., 2007. "An experimental study of the acceptance of a foreign newcomer into a workgroup," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 513-537, December.

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