Coping with liability of foreignness: Different learning engagements of entrant firms
AbstractMuch has been written about how international firms create and sustain firm-specific advantages that offset their liability of foreignness. Less attention has been devoted to the question of how international firms reduce their liability of foreignness. It is the contention of this study that as a consequence of managerial discretion, such as willingness to undertake local adaptation, international firms familiarize with foreign markets at different paces. The data from a sample of 494 international firms from Sweden, Denmark, and New Zealand suggest that entrant firms' learning engagement, i.e., the effort and ability to learn how to conduct business in a foreign environment, varies considerably. In particular, adoption of standardized international business routines and unwillingness to adapt products and marketing practices to local markets seem to be associated with a low learning engagement. The data also indicate that a large proportion of the entrant firms has been engaged in preentry learning.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Management.
Volume (Year): 8 (2002)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Contact details of provider:
Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/601266/description#description
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kent Eriksson & Jan Johanson & Anders Majkg�rd & D Deo Sharma, 1997. "Experimental Knowledge and Costs in the Internationalization Process," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 28(2), pages 337-360, June.
- Jan Johanson & Jan-Erik Vahlne, 1977. "The Internationalization Process of the Firm—A Model of Knowledge Development and Increasing Foreign Market Commitments," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 8(1), pages 23-32, March.
- Elango, B., 2009. "Minimizing effects of 'liability of foreignness': Response strategies of foreign firms in the United States," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 51-62, January.
- Tobias Schmidt & Wolfgang Sofka, 2005. "Lost in Translation - Empirical Evidence for Liability of Foreignness as Barriers to Knowledge Spillovers," Industrial Organization 0512012, EconWPA.
- Sethi, Deepak & Judge, William, 2009. "Reappraising liabilities of foreignness within an integrated perspective of the costs and benefits of doing business abroad," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 404-416, August.
- Chelekis, Jessica & Mudambi, Susan M., 2010. "MNCs and micro-entrepreneurship in emerging economies: The case of Avon in the Amazon," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 412-424, December.
- Denk, Nikola & Kaufmann, Lutz & Roesch, Jan-Frederik, 2012. "Liabilities of Foreignness Revisited: A Review of Contemporary Studies and Recommendations for Future Research," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 322-334.
- Joardar, Arpita & Kostova, Tatiana & Ravlin, Elizabeth C., 2007. "An experimental study of the acceptance of a foreign newcomer into a workgroup," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 513-537, December.
- Kaiser, Ulrich & Sofka, Wolfgang, 2006.
"The pulse of liability of foreignness: dynamic legitimacy and experiences effects in the German car market,"
ZEW Discussion Papers
06-70, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Ulrich Kaiser & Wolfgang Sofka, 2007. "The Pulse of Liability of Foreignness: Dynamic Legitimacy and Experience Effects in the German Car Market," CIE Discussion Papers 2007-01, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics. Centre for Industrial Economics.
- Sofka, Wolfgang & Zimmermann, Jörg, 2005.
"There's no Place Like Home: A Strategic Framework to Overcome Liability of Foreignness in the German Car Market,"
ZEW Discussion Papers
05-84, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Wolfgang Sofka & Joerg Zimmermann, 2005. "There is no Place Like Home: A Strategic Framework to Overcome Liability of Foreignness in the German Car Market," Industrial Organization 0512003, EconWPA.
- Jensen, Peter D. Ørberg, 2009. "A learning perspective on the offshoring of advanced services," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(2), pages 181-193, June.
- de Jong, Gjalt & van Houten, Jerry, 2014. "The impact of MNE cultural diversity on the internationalization-performance relationship," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 313-326.
- repec:emp:wpaper:ec8-127-i is not listed on IDEAS
- Sofka, Wolfgang & Zimmermann, Jörg, 2008. "Regional economic stress as moderator of liability of foreignness," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 155-172, June.
- Wolfgang Sofka & Joerg Zimmermann, 2007.
"Regional Dimensions of Liability of Foreignness: Between a Rock and a Hard Place?,"
Jena Economic Research Papers
2007-023, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
- Wolfgang Sofka & JÃ¶rg Zimmermann, 2007. "Regional Dimensions of Liability of Foreignness: Between a Rock and a Hard Place?," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2007-12, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
- repec:emp:wpaper:ec8-126-i is not listed on IDEAS
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.