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Do exits proxy a liability of foreignness?: The case of Japanese exits from the US

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  • Hennart, Jean-François
  • Roehl, Thomas
  • Zeng, Ming

Abstract

Progress in understanding the liability of foreignness requires accurate measurement of this concept. This paper investigates whether exits of foreign affiliates from a given host market provide a reliable measure. We tackle this question by investigating 32 exits of Japanese manufacturing affiliates from the US. Our goal is to assess the extent to which exits are driven by a liability of foreignness and thus whether exits can serve as a reliable measurement of this liability. We find that less than half of our exits are attributable to a liability of foreignness. We conclude that while the data confirm a liability of foreignness for Japanese early entrants into the US, the presence of many other motives for exit suggests caution when inferring such a liability from exits, especially when exit costs are low.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Management.

Volume (Year): 8 (2002)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
Pages: 241-264

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Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:8:y:2002:i:3:p:241-264

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Keywords: Liability of foreignness Affiliate exits Japanese investment in the United States;

References

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  1. Pennings, J.M. & Barkema , H. & Douma, S., 1994. "Organizational learning and diversification," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-382776, Tilburg University.
  2. Duane Kujawa, 1983. "Technology Strategy and Industrial Relations: Case Studies of Japanese Multinationals in the United States," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 14(3), pages 9-9, September.
  3. Kaplan, Steven N & Weisbach, Michael S, 1992. " The Success of Acquisitions: Evidence from Divestitures," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 47(1), pages 107-38, March.
  4. Bruce Kogut & Harbir Singh, 1988. "The Effect of National Culture on the Choice of Entry Mode," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 19(3), pages 411-432, September.
  5. McCloughan, Patrick & Stone, Ian, 1998. "Life duration of foreign multinational subsidiaries: Evidence from UK northern manufacturing industry 1970-93," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 16(6), pages 719-747, November.
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Cited by:
  1. Elango, B., 2009. "Minimizing effects of 'liability of foreignness': Response strategies of foreign firms in the United States," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 51-62, January.
  2. Denk, Nikola & Kaufmann, Lutz & Roesch, Jan-Frederik, 2012. "Liabilities of Foreignness Revisited: A Review of Contemporary Studies and Recommendations for Future Research," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 322-334.
  3. Sangcheol Song, 2014. "Entry mode irreversibility, host market uncertainty, and foreign subsidiary exits," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 455-471, June.
  4. Schmidt, Tobias & Sofka, Wolfgang, 2009. "Liability of foreignness as a barrier to knowledge spillovers: Lost in translation?," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 460-474, December.
  5. Slangen, A.H.L. & Hennart, J-F., 2008. "Do Foreign Greenfields Outperform Foreign Acquisitions or Vice Versa? An Institutional Perspective," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2008-009-ORG, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.
  6. Tobias Schmidt & Wolfgang Sofka, 2005. "Lost in Translation - Empirical Evidence for Liability of Foreignness as Barriers to Knowledge Spillovers," Industrial Organization 0512012, EconWPA.
  7. Sethi, Deepak & Judge, William, 2009. "Reappraising liabilities of foreignness within an integrated perspective of the costs and benefits of doing business abroad," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 404-416, August.
  8. Schmidt, Tobias & Sofka, Wolfgang, 2009. "Knowledge sourcing: legitimacy deficits for MNC subsidiaries?," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2009,09, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  9. Cuervo-Cazurra, Alvaro, 2007. "Sequence of value-added activities in the multinationalization of developing country firms," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 258-277, September.
  10. de Jong, Gjalt & van Houten, Jerry, 2014. "The impact of MNE cultural diversity on the internationalization-performance relationship," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 313-326.

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