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Curvilinear relationship between cultural distance and equity participation: An empirical analysis of cross-border acquisitions

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  • Malhotra, Shavin
  • Sivakumar, K.
  • Zhu, PengCheng
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    Abstract

    We examine the relationship between national cultural distance and equity participation using an analysis of a sample of more than 100,000 cross-border acquisitions from 1976 to 2008. We find that cultural distance has a curvilinear (U shaped) relationship with equity participation: Acquiring firms make large equity acquisitions at both low and high cultural distances and small equity acquisitions at moderate cultural distances. In addition, we find that industry relatedness of acquisitions positively moderates the relationship between cultural distance and equity participation: Acquiring firms take a higher equity stake for a given cultural distance if the acquisitions are in a related industry. Our findings offer important insights into firms' market entry behavior and provide guidelines for managers about entry strategies.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Management.

    Volume (Year): 17 (2011)
    Issue (Month): 4 ()
    Pages: 316-332

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:17:y:2011:i:4:p:316-332

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    Related research

    Keywords: National culture; Market entry; Equity participation; Cross-border acquisitions;

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    Cited by:
    1. Jell-Ojobor, Maria & Windsperger, Josef, 2014. "The Choice of Governance Modes of International Franchise Firms — Development of an Integrative Model," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 153-187.
    2. Hou, Wanrong & Li, Sali & Priem, Richard L., 2013. "How do CEOs matter? The moderating effects of CEO compensation and tenure on equity ownership in international joint ventures," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 138-151.
    3. Karhunen, Päivi & Ledyaeva, Svetlana, 2012. "Corruption Distance, Anti-corruption Laws and International Ownership Strategies in Russia," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 196-208.
    4. Lai, Jung-Ho & Chen, Li-Yu & Chang, Shao-Chi, 2012. "The board mechanism and entry mode choice," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 379-392.
    5. Cho, Kang Rae & Huang, Chia-Hsing & Padmanabhan, Prasad, 2014. "Foreign ownership mode, executive compensation structure, and corporate governance: Has the literature missed an important link? Evidence from Taiwanese firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 371-380.
    6. Cowan, Adrian & Huang, Chia-Hsing & Padmanabhan, Prasad & Wang, Chi-Hui, 2013. "The determinants of foreign giving: An exploratory empirical investigation of US manufacturing firms," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 407-420.
    7. Bowe, Michael & Golesorkhi, Sougand & Yamin, Mo, 2014. "Explaining equity shares in international joint ventures: Combining the influence of asset characteristics, culture and institutional differences," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 212-233.

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