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Half a century of measuring culture: Review of approaches, challenges, and limitations based on the analysis of 121 instruments for quantifying culture

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  • Taras, Vas
  • Rowney, Julie
  • Steel, Piers
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    Abstract

    After examining 121 instruments for measuring culture, we provide a historical overview and analyze how culture has been operationalized over the last half a century. Our study focuses on the topics of culture definition, dimensionality of culture models, collection and analysis of data for measuring culture, levels of culture measurement, issues of cross-cultural survey equivalence and the reliability and validity of culture measures. For each of these topics, we provide a review of existing approaches, discuss the challenges, and suggest best practices. Based on our analysis, we identify gaps in the field of culture measurement and offer directions for future research.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Management.

    Volume (Year): 15 (2009)
    Issue (Month): 4 (December)
    Pages: 357-373

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:15:y:2009:i:4:p:357-373

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    Related research

    Keywords: Culture Culture measurment Review Cross-cultural research;

    References

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    1. Geert Hofstede, 2006. "What did GLOBE really measure? Researchers’ minds versus respondents’ minds," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 37(6), pages 882-896, November.
    2. Peter B Smith, 2006. "When elephants fight, the grass gets trampled: the GLOBE and Hofstede projects," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 37(6), pages 915-921, November.
    3. S Durvasula & R G Netemeyer & J C Andrews & S Lysonski, 2006. "Examining the cross-national applicability of multi-item, multi-dimensional measures using generalizability theory," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 37(4), pages 469-483, July.
    4. Hofstede, G., 2006. "What did GLOBE really measure? Researchers' minds versus respondents' minds," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-194534, Tilburg University.
    5. Denny, Rita M. & Sunderland, Patricia L., 2005. "Researching cultural metaphors in action: metaphors of computing technology in contemporary U.S. life," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 58(10), pages 1456-1463, October.
    6. S. B. Littauer, 1960. "On Some Aspects of Technological Measurement," Management Science, INFORMS, INFORMS, vol. 0(1), pages 36-45, January.
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    Cited by:
    1. Engelen, Andreas & Brettel, Malte & Wiest, Gregor, 2012. "Cross-functional Integration and New Product Performance — The Impact of National and Corporate Culture," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 52-65.
    2. Barron, Andrew, 2011. "Exploring national culture's consequences on international business lobbying," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 320-327, July.
    3. Aggarwal, Raj & Kearney, Colm & Lucey, Brian, 2012. "Gravity and culture in foreign portfolio investment," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 525-538.
    4. Wilken, Robert & Jacob, Frank & Prime, Nathalie, 2013. "The ambiguous role of cultural moderators in intercultural business negotiations," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 736-753.
    5. Malhotra, Shavin & Sivakumar, K. & Zhu, PengCheng, 2011. "Curvilinear relationship between cultural distance and equity participation: An empirical analysis of cross-border acquisitions," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 316-332.
    6. Lau, Victor P. & Dimitrova, Mihaela N. & Shaffer, Margaret A. & Davidkov, Tzvetan & Yordanova, Desislava I., 2012. "Entrepreneurial Readiness and Firm Growth: An Integrated Etic and Emic Approach," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 147-159.
    7. Gunkel, Marjaana & Schlägel, Christopher & Engle, Robert L., 2014. "Culture's Influence on Emotional Intelligence: An Empirical Study of Nine Countries," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 256-274.
    8. Tjemkes, Brian V. & Furrer, Olivier & Adolfs, Koen & Aydinlik, Arzu Ãœlgen, 2012. "Response strategies in an international strategic alliance experimental context: Cross-country differences," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 66-84.

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