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One model and various experts: Evaluating Dutch macroeconomic forecasts

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  • Franses, Philip Hans
  • Kranendonk, Henk C.
  • Lanser, Debby

Abstract

The Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) uses a large macroeconomic model to create forecasts of various important macroeconomic variables. The outcomes of this model are usually filtered by experts, and it is the expert forecasts that are made available to the general public. In this paper we re-create the model forecasts for the period 1997–2008 and compare the expert forecasts with the pure model forecasts. Our key findings from the first time that this unique database has been analyzed are that (i) experts adjust upwards more often; (ii) expert adjustments are not autocorrelated, but their sizes do depend on the value of the model forecast; (iii) the CPB model forecasts are biased for a range of variables, but (iv) at the same time, the associated expert forecasts are more often unbiased; and that (v) expert forecasts are far more accurate than the model forecasts, particularly when the forecast horizon is short. In summary, the final CPB forecasts de-bias the model forecasts and lead to higher accuracies than the initial model forecasts.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal International Journal of Forecasting.

Volume (Year): 27 (2011)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 482-495

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Handle: RePEc:eee:intfor:v:27:y:2011:i:2:p:482-495

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Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/ijforecast

Related research

Keywords: Macroeconomic forecasting; Expert adjustment; Forecast accuracy;

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References

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  1. Robert Fildes & Paul Goodwin, 2007. "Good and Bad Judgment in Forecasting: Lessons from Four Companies," Foresight: The International Journal of Applied Forecasting, International Institute of Forecasters, issue 8, pages 5-10, Fall.
  2. Stekler, H.O., 2007. "The future of macroeconomic forecasting: Understanding the forecasting process," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 237-248.
  3. F. J. H. Don & J. P. Verbruggen, 2006. "Models and methods for economic policy: 60 years of evolution at CPB," Statistica Neerlandica, Netherlands Society for Statistics and Operations Research, vol. 60(2), pages 145-170.
  4. Henk Kranendonk & Johan Verbruggen, 2007. "SAFFIER; a multi-purpose model of the Dutch economy for short-term and medium-term analyses," CPB Document 144, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  5. Fildes, Robert & Goodwin, Paul & Lawrence, Michael & Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos, 2009. "Effective forecasting and judgmental adjustments: an empirical evaluation and strategies for improvement in supply-chain planning," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 3-23.
  6. Franses, Philip Hans & Legerstee, Rianne, 2009. "Properties of expert adjustments on model-based SKU-level forecasts," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 35-47.
  7. Henk Don & Johan Verbruggen, 2006. "Models and methods for economic policy; 60 years of evolution at CPB," CPB Discussion Paper 55, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  8. O'Connor, Marcus & Remus, William & Griggs, Ken, 1993. "Judgemental forecasting in times of change," International Journal of Forecasting, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 163-172, August.
  9. Robert C. Blattberg & Stephen J. Hoch, 1990. "Database Models and Managerial Intuition: 50% Model + 50% Manager," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 36(8), pages 887-899, August.
  10. Henk Don, 2004. "How econometric models help policy makers; theory and practice," CPB Discussion Paper 27, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
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Cited by:
  1. Franses, Ph.H.B.F. & Chang, C-L. & McAleer, M.J., 2011. "Analyzing Fixed-event Forecast Revisions," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 2011-22, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
  2. Chia-Lin Chang & Philip Hans Franses & Michael McAleer, 2011. "Evaluating Individual and Mean Non-Replicable Forecasts," Documentos de Trabajo del ICAE 2011-15, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Instituto Complutense de Análisis Económico.
  3. Philip Hans Franses & Michael McAleer & Rianne Legerstee, 2012. "Evaluating Macroeconomic Forecasts: A Concise Review of Some Recent Developments," Working Papers in Economics 12/12, University of Canterbury, Department of Economics and Finance.
  4. Chia-Lin Chang & Bert de Bruijn & Philip Hans Franses & Michael McAleer, 2013. "Analyzing Fixed-Event Forecast Revisions," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 13-057/III, Tinbergen Institute.

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